THE IMPLEMENTATION OF ROLE PLAY METHOD IN TEACHING ENGLISH LANGUAGE TO THE SIXTH GRADE STUDENT OF MI SIMO JENANGAN PONOROGO IN THE SCHOOLING YEAR OF 2008/2009
ISNA MARATUS SHOLIKHAH
PROGRAM STUDY OF ENGLISH EDUCATION
THE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
STATE ISLAMIC HIGH SCHOOL
Maratus Sholikhah, Isna. 2009. The Implementation Of Role Play Method In Teaching English Language To The Sixth Grade Student Of Mi Simo Jenangan Ponorogo In The Schooling Year Of 2008/2009. Thesis Program Study Of English Education. The department of education. Islamic high school. Lecturer: Mrs. Tintin
Key Word: Implementation, Role Play Method
English is one kinds of languages. As an international language, it used to communicate among people in the different country. Like in the Indonesia country, english language learned since elementary school. So, it need the best method to teachs. In the otherhands we will must know about significance this study, especially to the teachers and students.the method will used of this research is role play method.
To know deeply this study, the writer will breakdown the theory of this research under the title “The Implementation Of Role Play Method In Teaching English Language To The Sixth Grade Student Of Mi Simo Jenangan Ponorogo In The Schooling Year Of 2008/2009”. The reviews of related literature have a goal of providing previous studies and information concerned with the research problems. The theories also used as a guide of presenting this research.
In the last chapter will be presents of the research methodology used in this study. The existence of the research methodology has a goal of guiding the research as in order to work systematically. The research methodology covers a set of research activities conducted by researcher. From here the ways of research will be known and clearly.
CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION
A. Background of Study…………………………………………..3
B. Limitation of The Study………………………………………..3
C. Statement of the Problem……………………………………….4
D. Purpose of the study…………………………………………….4
E. Significance of the study………………………………………..4
CHAPTER II: RIVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
A. Defenition of teaching………………………………………….5
B. The teaching English language…………………………………5
C. The teaching method……………………………………………7
D. The Role Play Method………………………………………….10
2. The Ways……………………………………………………10
CHAPTER III: RESEARCH METHOD
A. Research Design………………………………………………..14
B. Place and Time of The Research……………………………….14
C. Source of Data…………………………………………………..15
D. Data Collection………………………………………………….15
E. Data Analysis……………………………………………………16
A. Background of Study
English language is one of foreign language. It become very important in education aspect. Because English language including to several language lesson in our country. And there are have several functions of foreign language; a. international communication and study of language, b. language as a system of communication, c. the most complex of man’s tool, d. each language is structurally different system. (lado, 1961:1)
Many scientists define the meaning of language differently. But generally the stated that language as a mean of communication. Wardaugh (1972:3) stated that, “ language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols by means of which a social group cooperates”. On that statement, the writer considers that language is an oral system of a communication means.
As an international language, it is used to communicate among people in the different country. Because of that, it can be an important too that it should be learned by the students.
In our country, English learned since elementary school. Because English is not our native language, the students are difficult to learn it, based on that statement, English is taught with many methods to make student easily to learn English as their second language. One of method that helps the students to master English is by using a role play method.
Children have enormous capacity for finding and making happy. Children will be motivated for learning if they feel enjoyable what they are doing. When the children study together with their friends in the role play , so the goal learning will be achieved. From the explanation the writer considers that role is a good method to attract the students’ interest to learn English, so that they will enjoy and they are not bored to learn it.
B. Limitation of The Study
To avoid run discussion, this study focuses on some concern identified as follow:
1. The subject of study is the Sixth Grade Student Of Mi Simo Jenangan Ponorogo In The Schooling Year Of 2008/2009.
2. The Object of study is the Implementation Of Role Play Method In Teaching English Language
3. The materials are English texts for Elementary School
4. The methods of collecting data are observation and interview
5. The data analysis is qualitative approach
C. Statement Of The Problem
In this research the researcher taken the statement of the problem is The Implementation Of Role Play Method In Teaching English Language To The Sixth Grade Student Of Mi Simo Jenangan Ponorogo In The Schooling Year Of 2008/2009.
D. Purpose Of The Study
Regarding of the problem statement, this study purposes to describe the Implementation Of Role Play Method In Teaching English Language To The Sixth Grade Student Of Mi Simo Jenangan Ponorogo In The Schooling Year Of 2008/2009.
E. Significance Of The Study
The significance of the studies are;
1. for the writer (researcher)
by using this method perhaps to researdher will get one solution to evaluate. The researcher will know what the adventages are by using role play method in teaching English language.
And next time, researcher will choose this method as one of solution to evaluate.
2. for the teacher
teacher can evaluate clearly what the result of teaching English language uses the role play method. This research can be given to the teacher as variation in teaching English language.
3. for the student
this research as preference to increase students interest in learning English language with enjoyable and can be used to broaden and develop their k
RIVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
A. Defenition Of Teaching
Teaching is one of educative activities. In educational system, teaching plays an important role in which an interaction between a teacher and student occurs. Ther is an assumption that teaching is a process of transforming knowledge to students. In the teaching process, a teacher stands in front of the class to present a certain subject matter and students are required to sit and listen it. Having completed the subject matter, the teacher provides the students with a set of academic tasks. In the end of the class, the teacher evaluates the academis tasks. In short, teaching is considered as a delivery system in which the students are required to understand the subject matter without knowing the process.
Nowadays, teaching is defined from a different point of view. According to Howard (in Slameto, 2003:32), “ mengajar adalah suatu aktivitas untuk mencoba menolong, membimbing seseorang untuk mendapatkan , mengubah atau mengembangkan skill, attitude, ideals (cita – cita). Appreciations (penghargaan), dan knowledge.” Sudarwan Danim (1995:34) states, mengajar dapat didefinisikan sebagai suatu proses mengorganisasikan atau mmenata sejumlah sumber potensi secara baik dan benar sehingga terjadi proses belajar anak.” For the same case, Joko Nurkamto (2008:5) offers a viewpoint, “ mengajar bukan lagi menyampaikan pengetahuan. Mengajar adalah berpatisipasi dengan siswa dalam mengkonstuksi pengetahuan.” Thus, teaching is an activity of helping students to learn the subject matter and guiding them to understand new knowledge. For this case, the teacher has to give students an opportunity to construct new knowledge. Students must be involved in the teaching process. On the words, teaching is a process of helping students to understand new knowledge that they have never experienced and to achieve the better understanding of it.
In conclusion, teaching is not merely an activity of transforming information or knowledge to students. Teaching cannot be viewed as a delivery process. Teaching must be viewed as a process of systematizing situations, conditions, task materials, and opportunities in order to help students acquire and construct new knowledge.
B. The Teaching English Language
“…language teaching must provide the learner with means to select language which suitable for circumstances. In which it is used (involving command of features of dealect, register, medium and style; and which is appropriate to express his personal states and ideas) requiring mastery of a range of communicative functions.” (Wilkins in Allison,1999:29). According this statement that teacher must be in select circumstances whenever teach english language for student, especially for elementary school toward this circumstances and than they will not surfeited.
In other statement which stated that “ Mengajarkan bahasa Inggris kepada anak-anak maupun orang dewasa memang gampamg-gampang susah. Banyak orang berpendapat bahwa memberikan materi pelajaran berbahasa inggris sangatlah sulit karena merupakan bahasa asing yang mau tidak mau harus dilaksanakan sesuai tuntutan kurikulum yang berlaku dinegara kita.” (Ayu Rini,2005: 2). English language will learned until in the senior high school and sure this is needs teacher who have creativities to teach in the method and other thing will support to teach English well.
So, from those argument the researcher give the tips to teaching English for the teacher. The first it is Dress right. Jeans, sneakers, and just-out-of-bed hair may be okay for teachers in the U.S., but in many parts of the world, a neat appearance counts far more than credentials. In Korea dark clothes lend an air of authority. Red is to be avoided at all costs. In Morocco female teachers don’t wear pants, sleeveless blouses, or short skirts.
The second it is Behave appropriately. When it asked 250 students at the Sichuan Institute of Foreign Languages in China what they liked and disliked about native speaker English teachers, the students’ main gripe was the informality of foreign teachers, who often seem to undermine their own authority by acting in undignified ways. In the U.S. teachers go on a first-name basis with students, sit on their desks, sip coffee, and even bounce off the walls without causing student discomfort or losing prestige. But these behaviors don’t export well.
The third, Don’t worry if students seem unresponsive at first. Americans are used to participatory classrooms with plenty of teacher-student dialogue. Elsewhere, students are often trained to be silent, good listeners, and memorizers. It’s disconcerting to stand in front of a sea of blank faces, but expecting it reduces the shock. Introduce new concepts, such as discussion and role-play gradually. You’ll be surprised at how students will come to embrace the change.
The fourth, Choose topics carefully. There are still many countries in the world where people are hesitant to voice opinions because of a fear of reprisal. If you’re conducting a classroom debate, remember that there’s a distaste for Western-style argumentation in Middle-Eastern societies, and in Japan it’s offensive for an individual to urge others to accept his opinion.
Certain topics may be taboo for cultural reasons: Most Americans don’t want to discuss their salaries or religious beliefs; Japanese may be disinclined to talk about their inner feelings; the French think questions about their family life are rude.
The fifth, Don’t ask, “Do you understand?” In China and Japan, students will nod yes, even if they’re totally lost, in an attempt to save face for the teacher. Even in a country as far west as Turkey, yes often means no.
The sixth, Avoid singling students out. Our society fosters a competitive individualism which is clearly manifested in our classrooms. American students are not shy about displaying their knowledge. In classrooms outside the U.S., however, showing solidarity with classmates and conforming to the status quo is often more important than looking good for the teacher. In Turkey and Montenegro students told me they disliked volunteering answers too often because it made them look like show-offs and attracted the evil eye of envy. If you want to play a game, make the competition among groups rather than among individuals. If you need to discipline a student, do so in private.
The seventh, Be aware of cross-cultural communication styles. French students appreciate wit. Venezuelan students like boisterous rapid-fire exchanges. In Japan, where debate is not as valued as in the U.S., students appreciate long pauses in discussions and silent “think time” after you ask a question. “Hollow drums make the most noise” goes a Japanese proverb, and Japanese students are uncomfortable blurting out the first thing that comes to mind. American teachers, who are uncomfortable with silence, tend to anticipate the student’s words or repeat their original question—both irritating interruptions for the Japanese student.
The eighth, Present a rationale for what you do in class. Your pedagogy is going to be very different from what students are used to. They’ll conform much more eagerly to new classroom content and procedures if they understand the benefits.
The ninth, Expect the best of your students. They’ll be serious about learning English because their economic advancement often depends upon mastering it.
The lasth, Relax and enjoy yourself. Happiness in the classroom is contagious. (online) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki) (accessed at, 17-04-2009. 09:21:04)
C. The Teaching Method
Teaching method is one component involved in the teaching learning process. Soetomo (1993:144) defines teaching method as “ …alat untuk mencapai tujuan pengajaran yang ingin dicapai ..” the same opinion is offered by Winarno Surahmad(2003:96), “ metode adalah cara yang didalam fungsinya merupakan alat untuk mencapai tujuan.” Furthermore, Brown (2000:171) defines teaching method as;
“A generalized, prescribed set of classroom specifications for accomplishing linguistic objectives. Methods tend to be primarily concerned with teacher and student roles and behaviors, and secondarily with such features as linguistic and subject matter objectives, sequencing, and materials. They are almost always thought of as being broadly to a variety of audiences in a variety of contexts.”
On the other words, the teacher has to take into account some factors to select an appropriate teaching method. The factors are students, educational objectives, teaching situation, teaching facility, and teacher’s characteristic and professionalism. Each of these factors is explained in the following.
The first factor concerns with students. According to H. Muhammad Ali (2005: 5), “ Setiap siswa mempunyai keragaman dalam hal kecakapan maupun kepribadian.” This idea is supported by edge (2001:9), “ All learners are different. No two individuals have the same knowledge, or skills, or expectations…Learners are also influenced by their age and by their educational, social, and cultural backgrounds…” Since are different, selecting in a teaching method must be suited to their characteristics; their social status, sex, intelligence, personality, age, grade, maturity, interests, needs, and experience. In short, student’ different biological, intellectual, and psychological aspects must be the focus of attention concerned with the selection of teaching method.
The second factor is educational objectives. Syaiful Bahri Djamarah and Aswaan Zain (2002:91) recommend, “ metode yang guru pilih harus sejalan dengan taraf kemampuan yang hendak diisi kedalam diri setiap anak didik. Artinya, metodelah yang harus tunduk kepada kehendak tujuan dan bukan sebaliknya.” On the other words, selecting a teaching method must fit the educational objectives. Different educational objectives determine what teaching method will be applied. For instance, the teaching grammer will not be suitable applied in teaching speaking. If the educational objective is to make certain responses automatically, the drill method will be most appropriate.
The third factor focuses on teaching situation. Syaiful Bahri Djamarah and Aswaan Zain (2002:91) recommend, “ situasi kegiatan belajar mengajar yang guru ciptakan tidak selamanya sama dari hari ke hari …Maka guru dalam hal ini tentu memilih metode mengajar yang sesuai dengan situasi yang diciptakan itu.” Thus, to conduct the teaching larning process, the teacher should vary the way she/he teaches. It has agoal of providing the students with different teaching situations. Once, the teacher presents the subject matter inside the classroom, but once she/he conducts the teaching learning process outside the classroom. However, the different teaching situations need different teaching methods.
The forth factor deals with teaching facility. Syaiful Bahri Djamarah and Aswaan Zain (2002:91) offer a viewpoint, “ fasilitas merupakan hal yang mempengaruhi pemilihan dan penentuan metode mengajar.” It can be stated that teaching facility influences on the selection of teaching method. Some schools have modern teaching facilities such as audio visual rooms, projectors, TV, radio, laboratory rooms, music rooms with pianos, or a well equipped library. A school with a well-equipped language laboratory may provide the students with good listening classroom, but a school with limited teaching methods must focus on available teaching facilities.
The fifth factor is teacher’s charactheristic and professionalism. H. Muhammad Ali (2005:5) explain,”setiap guru memiliki pola mengajar sendiri-sendiri. Pola mengajar ini tercermin dalam tingkah laku dalam melaksanakan pengajaran.” Edge (2001:11) states, “like learners, however, all teacher are different…” it can be stated that teachers have their own personalities and professionalisms. They have their own ways of doing things. Some may prefer certain teaching methods than others and apply them more often. Some prefer experiment method while others prefer lecture method. The different personalities and professionalism influence the selection of teaching method.
So, teaching method has an essential position in the teaching-learning process. Teaching method enables the teacher to transform the subject matter to the students easier. To achieve educational objectives, the teacher must know what appropriate teaching methods will be applied. Some factors, such as aducational objectives, student, teaching situation, teaching facility, and teacher’s characteristic and profesinalism, must be involved in selecting appropriate teaching methods.
D. The Role Play Method
1. The Meaning
Concerning with Role Play Method, Hisyam, Bermawy and Sekar (2002:92) states, “Role Play adalah suatu aktivitas pemebelajaran yang terencana yang dirancang untuk mencapai tujuan-tujuan pendidikan yang spesifik berdasarkan dari pengalaman peran sehari-hari.”
In the other source, offers a viewpoint that ”Role playing, a derivative of a sociodrama, is a method for exploring the issues involved in complex social situations. It may be used for the training of professionals or in a classroom for the understanding of literature, history, and even science.”( Adam Blatner, 2002 in http://www.blatner.com/adam/pdntbk/rlplayedu.htm).
So, the role play method that the strategy or method like a drama will helps teacher to get the goals of teaching learning and help students to practice their lesson with enjoyable and attractive. Thus, their class will live and get spirit. Especially in the Sixth Grade Student Of Mi Simo Jenangan Ponorogo In The Schooling Year Of 2008/2009
2. The ways
They are the steps of the method in http://www.usask.ca/education/coursework/mcvittiej/methods/role.html:
The first is Creating the role play, a) Brainstorm for yourself several issues to do with the unit. Choose one which you think would make an effective role play. Then choose six to eight roles for students to act out. These roles should be of people who will have different interests in the result of the discussion. For example, if the role play is to discuss whether the local chemical plant should clean up its land, then there will probably be people who will lose their jobs if the plant is forced to spend all its money on clean up, and there will probably be local business people who rely on the plant workers for income, and there might be neighbours of the chemical plant who will be, or have been, affected adversely by the plant, etc. b),Each role should be described clearly and succinctly. Your students should be able to read over the character descriptions in a few minutes. c) Choose a line of action for these role players to take. The line of action might be having a town council meeting to decide if the chemical plant should clean up its dump site now. Simplicity is the key. If your students need background information to be able to carry out the role play, this should already have been addressed in class.
The second, Preparing the students for roles, 1. There are two ways for preparing the students: a) One way is to give the students a week or so to prepare themselves for the role. This can be very effective, especially if you have a motivated and inspired class. You will be pleasantly surprised, usually, about the amount of preparation some of your students do for their roles. This gives students who are not strong in science a chance to be good in a different aspect of science. Not all your students will take on the opportunity, but, as I mentioned, you will probably be surprised by which students do, b) Another way is to give the selected students five minutes before the performance to read over their roles, and discuss their roles with the other members of the role play. While these students are discussing their roles (usually they will do this in the hall), you work with the rest of the class. Perhaps the rest of the class will set the stage. Perhaps the rest of the class will be learning some background information.2,Regardless of which way you prepare your students for their roles, you should pick who will perform which role. There are two reasons for you choosing : a) One reason is that you will have pedagogical reasons for choosing certain students. You might want to choose a child who likes to be in charge to be the chairperson of a meeting. You might want to choose a child who is antagonistic to another child to act as that child=s friend. You might want to choose a child who is struggling with a particular concept to act a role where the student must research that concept to prepare for the role, b) The other reason for you choosing is that you will have many different role plays throughout the term. You will want to balance the groups who act so that every student has a chance to act. The first role play will involve one or two of the more extroverted students, so that the more shy students will see how easy role plays are before they are forced to act.
The third is The action: a) Just before the role play begins, you will introduce the role play. You will explain what role playing is about (for the first role play the students engage in. This will be less important as your students become familiar with how role plays work.), b) You will make the problem explicit to your class. Whatever the line of action is, the actors must make a decision about an issue. The issue will be one where the right choice is not clear cut. In other words, your students should be facing a dilemma, c) You might or might not set a time limit for the action. If you are going to set a time limit, you will notify your students of the time limit in advance, and you will also remind them at the point where they must stop action and make their decision., d) You now step back and let the actors take over. Ideally, there would be one student who will be the chair of the role play - either officially (the chairperson of the town council meeting, or the person who must make the final decision, etc.) If you want one student to act as the chair of the role play as well as the playing a role, you will have to tell that student that this is part of his/her role. This student will then take charge of advising the players that they must stop action and make a decision., e) While your students act, you will make anecdotal records, or fill in checklists, or enjoy the role play.
The fourth is Whole class involvement; As I mentioned, I know of two ways in which the whole class can be involved, If the role play involves a town council meeting, you can have the whole class get involved in the discussion after the players have had their say. Then the whole class can cast their votes, as well as the role players. If you are going to conduct the role play so that all students can be involved in the discussion at the end, you will have to inform the whole class at the beginning that they will all be involved. Even if the role play is not a town council meeting, you might have the whole class involved at the end. For example, if a family had to make a decision on something, students could be asked to act as neighbours and to make suggestions to different family members. Then the family would make their decision.
A very different way of getting the whole class involved is to have the players make their decision. Then the whole class discusses whether they think the actor played the role as the particular character would have played it. For example, in the case of the chemical plant clean-up, is an employee of the plant, one who has just purchased a house, likely to vote that the plant will just have to clean up, even if it goes bankrupt? Students in the audience consider whether the character would have been likely to make that decision. Then those students who think an actor should have played the role differently will have an opport.
A. Research Design
Research is the study of case that happened and try to compare with the own analyze and try to find the problem solving for that case.
The writer using qualitative approach in this research. The result of the problem in this research can be known if the writer was do the research and the result. Is not in number or in statistic but in phenomenon description. Its tries to describe the area of difficulty encountered by students in learning English and by the teachers to teach English. From this is Syamsudin and vismaia (2006:74) said that, “pendekatan kualitatif adalah pendekatan yang penting untuk memahami suatu fenomena social dan perspektif individu yang di teliti, tujuan pokoknya adalah menggambarkan, mempelajari, dan menjelaskan fenomena itu. Pemahaman fenomena ini dapat diperoleh dengan cara mendeskripsikan dan mengeksplorasikannya dalam sebuah narasi.”
Based on the statement, it can be stated that a qualitative has the natural setting. The research data is collected naturally by observasing a phenomenon while it is happening and by conducting a verbal communication with the respondents. A qualitative research also promotes human (researcher) as the research instrument. A qualitative research also takes into account the process rather than the outcomes or the product.
In this research, the data is collected naturally by observing the implementation of Role Play Method In Teaching English Language To The Sixth Grade Student Of MI Simo Jenangan Ponorogo In The Schooling Year Of 2008/2009 and by conducting an interview with the English teacher of the schooling. The researcher plays arole as an observer and an interview. Then, the data is analyzed and presented in a form of description.
B. Place And Time Of The Research
1. place of the research
this research takes place at MI Simo Jenangan Ponorogo. The reasons for selecting the school are:
a. the school is reachable. It enables the researcher to conduct the research more effectively.
b. Role play method is applied in the school, particularly in teaching English
2. Time of the research
this research is conducted for 3 weeks; from April 3nd-23nd 2009. the research presented of preparation, application, and reporting.
C. Source Of Data
Population is the people who live in an area, a city, a country etc. (Hornby, 1995:897). The target population this study is all student of The Sixth Grade Student Of MI Simo Jenangan Ponorogo In The Schooling Year Of 2008/2009.
Definition of sample is part of polulation reach that has the same character with population (Nana Sudjana and Ibrahim, 1989: 84-85). This sample of this research are 15 students of 30 students in there class. They are Sixth Grade Student Of MI Simo Jenangan Ponorogo In The Schooling Year Of 2008/2009.
Suharsimi arikunto (1998:120) gives indication to take the sample, namely is the subject is less than 100. it is better all of them are used. But if the subject is bigger, can take about for 10-15% or 20-25% or more than it as the sample. Inthis research the researcher takes 50% students as the sample.
D. Data Collection
This research applies a qualitative approach. Syamsudin and Damaianti (2006:94: point out, “ bagi peneliti kualitatif fenomena dapat dimengerti maknanya secara baik apabila dilakukan melalui interaksi dengan subjek melalui wawancara mendalam. Selain itu, upaya dapat dilakukan melalui observasi pada latar tempat fenomena tersebut sedang berlangsung.” Based on the statement, this research applies interview and observation as the techniques for collecting data.
Observation is a kind of instrument that is almost researcher already has taken. Observation is done directly toward the objects of the study. The researcher participates in finding the data. As the result, the researcher can understand the condition and believes in the accuracy of the data.
Participant observation according to Bogdan (1972: 3) is observation, which interacts between researcher and subject. It needs long time to analyze observation. Rewriting the data is done regularly. In descriptive research, observation is done to collect data before the research begins. The data is collected by observasing completely what the target of research.
The researcher observes a large amount of students at the Sixth Grade Student Of MI Simo Jenangan Ponorogo In The Schooling Year Of 2008/2009 as the subject of research. The focus of observation is for role method in the implementation of teaching English language.
Lincoln & Guba, 1985 (in Syamsudin ang Damaianti, 2006:94) argue, “ wawancara adalah suatu percakapan denagn tujuan. Tujuan dilakukan wawancara untuk memperoleh konstruksi yang terjadi sekarang tentang orang, kejadian, aktivitas, organisasi, perasaan, motivasi, pengakuan, kerisauan dan sebgainya; rekonstruksi keadaan tersebut berdasarkan pengalaman masa lalu; proyeksi keadaan tersebut diharapkan terjadi pada masa yang akan datang; dan verifikasi, pengecekan dan pengembangan informasi (konstruksi, rekonstruksi dan proyeksi) yang telah didapat sebelumnya.”
Then, interview is a conversation with a purpose. The main purpose is to get information of people, events, activities, feelings, motivation etc. interview can also defined as an activity of gathering information that is conducted through conversation.
In this research, interview is conducted to acquire information about the implementation of role play method in teaching English lesson to the Sixth Grade Student Of MI Simo Jenangan Ponorogo In The Schooling Year Of 2008/2009.
E. Data Analysis
The stages of interactive analysis applied in this research are data reduction, data display, and conclusion. Each of the stages is presented in the following.
1. Data reduction
Data reduction is a stage of summarizing, classifying, and focusing on essential things. In this stage, the researcher needs to separate the accurate data from the in accurate ones. Through the data reduction, the research may focus on the data that will be analyzed.
2. Data display
Data display is a stage of organizing the data into patterns of relationship. The data display can make the collected data easier to be understood. In this stage, the researcher presents the narrative text.
In this stage, the researcher make a conclusion. The conclusion can be in a form of thick description. The conclusion is the answer of the research problems that have been formulated.
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