Prof. Ahmad Sonhadji K.H., M.A., Ph.D.
Professor of State University of Malang
The global era encourages educational institutions to keep up with the competition, follow new trends in technology, and create and take advantage of opportunities around the word. However, globalization should be balanced between the global demand of educational services and the uniquely local needs of development. In the globalization era, several issues such as trans-national education, cross-border education, international quality assurance and accreditation, and international networks are becoming main issues in international forums (i.e. seminars, workshops, conferences, annual meetings, etc.)
Trans-national education and cross-border education are indicated by high mobilization of educational institutions in one country to operate in other countries or at least joint programs between two educational institutions, breaking isolationism leading to low or nonexistent boundaries. Other form of cross-border education is to set up a government scholarship to encourage more students to take part in the exchange programs to foreign countries.
In quality assurance systems, good practices and experiences are introduced at the international level. While examining and approving the joint programs and institutions, we focus on the ranking course providers, the ranking from new major media, evaluation results from trans-national accreditation organizations.
The efforts above can be achieved by building international networks among educational institutions, professional organizations, as well as governmental-based relationship among countries. Related to the network development, we should prepare common standards supported and recognized by all parties. One of the topics of collaboration among educational, professional, or governmental bodies of various countries is “how to create effective or productive learning”, that is related to recognized international standards of teaching and learning such as graduate competency standards, curricula, learning processes, evaluation, and class-room management.
The standard of classroom management should be emphasized, because it is assumed that the classroom management strategy can support and determine other components leading to the effective learning, and further to high standardized student achievement. Therefore, schools which are developing international standardized such RSBI, SBI, SNBI, internationally excellent schools, etc. must adopt standardized class-room management to be implemented in their institutions.
Principles of Classroom Management
Levin and Nolan (1996) identifies four basic principles of classroom management. First, the simple most important factor in determining the learning environment is teacher behavior. Internally or intentionally, teachers’ verbal and nonverbal behavior influence student behavior. The second principle is that teachers have the professional responsibility for assuming the role of instructional leader, which involves employing techniques that maximize student’s task behavior. Next, teachers have to clearly develop ideas of: (1) the relationship between teaching and discipline; (2) factors of motivating students to behave as they should do; (3) their personal expectations
for students behavior; and (4) a systematic plan to manage misbehavior in the classroom characterized by high percentage student attendance. Finally, classroom management includes a preplanned decision-making hierarchy of management strategies in order to increase the likelihood of appropriated student behavior.
Key Elements of Classroom Management
At least there are six key elements of classroom management: (1) the effective role of teachers, (2) student cooperation, (3) favorable climate, (4) procedures and rules for conduct, (5) conducting learning activities, and (6) controlling behavior of students (Cangelosi, 1988).
The effective role of teachers is very important. It is associated with what a teacher does along with lines of six main steps of the teaching process, those are: determine students’ needs, determine learning goal. design learning activities, prepare for learning activities, conduct learning activities, and evaluate student achievement.
The second key element is the problem that how to bring students to cooperate. To respond the typical problem, several approach have been developed, for example the Kouuin approach (the impact of a teacher’s withitness on the student behavior exhibited in the classroom); Jones approach (body language, incentives, and efficient help); the Ginott approach (cooperation through good communication and positive image toward students); and the Glasser approach (rational choices through meetings and conferences between student and teacher). The third key element is how does a teacher teach students to engage in learning activities as serious and important business. The effort can be achieved by a favorable climate in the classroom, such as through taking advantage of the beginning of new school year, methods of distributing materials and giving directions, selecting audio-visual aids, and utilization of intra-class groups.
Establishing procedures and rules for conduct is the fourth key element of effective classroom management. For example, a teacher should teach procedures and rules to students before starting the course, including school-wide discipline policies. Conducting learning activities is the most important of classroom management. The fifth key element has to be begun with giving intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, followed by problem solving learning activities, and giving independent assignment to students. At last, a teacher must control the students’ behavior, both on-task behavior and off-task behavior, and also dealing with disruptive behavior of students.
Trend of International Schools in Indonesia
One of Indonesian Government programs is International Level School (Sekolah Bertaraf Internasional/SBI). SBI is a school that has conducted educational program mainly with national standard of education, plus having quality leading to international standards. The components of educational system are: accreditation, curriculum, learning process, evaluation, teacher, supporting staff, facilities, and management (http:www.mandikdasmen.depdiknas.go.id).
An international private school is Global Jaya International School and in Jakarta. The Global Jaya Middle School uses a coherent and comprehensive curriculum framework which allows students to develop the knowledge, attitudes and skills they need to participate effectively with the changing demands of life in the twenty-first century. This program provides young people with an education for life and teaches them to relate the learning content of the classroom to the realities of the world outside. The school has three fundamental concepts: (1) intercultural awareness which is concerned with developing students’ attitudes, knowledge and skills as they learn about their own and others’ cultures, (2) holistic education that helps students to see their knowledge as an interrelated whole, and (3) communication that is fundamental to learning, and it is essential that students know how to communicate well in expressing their understanding and ideas (http//www.ibo.org).
Another school is Jakarta International school (JIS). The essential qualities for a JIS learner are attributes fostered through interactions among members of the JIS community. The learners are: (1) creative individuals who take risks, appreciate art, think divergently and are curious and inquisitive, (2) collaborative workers who demonstrate leadership, work effectively together, contribute actively, listen to others and appreciate different points of view, (3) problem solvers who manage information, perceive possibilities, think creatively, analyze situations, are self starters, logically process information and synthesize ideas, (4) self-directed positive learners who demonstrate integrity, respect and dignity, readiness for self improvement, initiative, conviction, pride, quality commitment, reflection, perseverance, passion for learning and spiritual inquiry, and (5) adaptable learners who demonstrate self discipline, set goals, make decisions, exhibit versatility, welcome change, display resourcefulness, are organized and self aware (http//www.jisedu.org).
One other example is SMP YSN (YSN Middle School). The school has developed international standardized school through benchmarking to Bedok Green Secondary School in Singapore as “the sister school”. The school was appointed as sister school because it has good vision, mission, and values. The Vision of Bedok Green Secondary School is stated as “a school of choice and a community of life-long learners” And the mission is to provide a nurturing environment where pupils are imbued with sound values, a passion for learning and confidence to face future challenges. Furthermore, the school has several values:(1) resilience, the school is undeterred by failure or setbacks, instead it has the strength and tenacity to persevere and pursue its goals, (2) integrity, the school demonstrate honesty and uprightness through word and deed, (3) compassion, the school feel for and show care and concern for one another, and (4) humility, the school take pride in our strengths while being modest in its behavior and attitude
Several issues such as trans-national education, cross-border education, international quality assurance and accreditation, and international networks are recently echoed in international forums. The basic purpose is to create effective and productive learning through adopting international standards of teaching and learning such as graduate competency standards, curricula, learning processes, evaluation, and class-room management. The standard of classroom management should be emphasized, primarily related to the principles, key elements, values, approaches, and models, because it is assumed that the classroom management strategy can support and determine other components leading to the effective learning. The international standards have been adopted by some international schools in Indonesia, both public and private schools.
December 6, 2009
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