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Senin, 07 Maret 2011

THE IMPROVEMENT OF LISTENING SKILL THROUGH CALL (COMPUTER-ASSISTED LANGUAGE LEARNING) METHOD AT THE TENTH GRADE STUDENTS OF SMA NEGERI 1 BABADAN IN

THE IMPROVEMENT OF LISTENING SKILL THROUGH CALL (COMPUTER-ASSISTED LANGUAGE LEARNING) METHOD AT THE TENTH GRADE STUDENTS OF SMA NEGERI 1 BABADAN
IN THE ACADEMIC YEAR OF 2009/2010

THESIS

Submitted as a Partial Fulfillment of Requirements for an Undergraduate Degree of Program Study of English and Education Department



By:
ISNA MARATUS SHOLIKHAH
NIM: 249 062 116


PROGRAM STUDY OF ENGLISH
THE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
STATE ISLAMIC HIGH SCHOOL
PONOROGO 2010
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION


A. Background of The Study
English language is an international languages, it is used to communicate among people in the different country. Because English language include to several language lessons in Indonesia, It becomes very important in education aspect. There are several functions of foreign language such as (1) international communication and study of language, (2) language as a system of communication, (3) the most complex of man’s tool, (4) each language is structurally different system.
For Indonesian students, English is a foreign language. It is an important subject taught at every level of education. To provide the students with English learning as whole, the teacher has to present all language skills, those are identified as listening, speaking, reading and writing. All of the language skills must be presented to achieve the whole understanding of English.
Listening is one of the four language skills. Listening can be defined as “…ability to understand and interpret spoken English ”. Listening is the skill which is important than other skills. David Argues that before coming to another skills, listening and speaking are natural skills. That everyone is able to achieve. And the other statement said that listening as a major component in language learning and teaching first. From those statement, we know that listening skill is must be learned before another skills.
Further, students must be received listening skill well to help them defined English language and understood who’s speaker said. Especially, in their English subject. Like this statement, “Good listeners are good catchers because they give their speakers a target and then move that target to capture the information that is being sent”.
In the reality, most of the students were not actively listening and it occurred too in the SMAN 1 Babadan. According to the observation (preliminary) and interview with Eng;ish teacher by researcher before doing the Classroom Action Research the students were not interested to listen because they rarely taught listening in the class and they needed interesting methods. Consequently, Students would find the difficulty in their English, moreover in their final examination. As the result, they must study hard in listening skill .
For this case, teacher must provide the students with teach listening skill and appropriate teaching methods. A teaching method is a prescribed set of ways applied to convey knowledge and competence to the students. Therefore, applying appropriate teaching methods plays an important role in the teaching learning process, including in teaching of listening.
Related to the problem above, the researcher is interested in applying CALL (Computer-Assisted Language Learning) method. The method recommended on this argues, “In CALL programs, listening is combined with seeing, just like in the real world. Students also control the pace and the path of the interaction. Interaction is in the foreground but many CALL programs also provide links to explanations simultaneously. And it explained in other argues that theoretical basis for CALL instruction design computers have become so widespread in schools and homes and their uses have expanded so dramatically that the majority of language teachers now think about the implications. Technology can bring about changes in the teaching methodologies of foreign language beyond simply automating full in the gap exercises. Thus, CALL is a method applied in elaboration strategy. It is suitably applied in the teaching of listening. It is very useful for students to remember what they learned, because not only listening but also seeing the materials subject.
Beside statement above, CALL defined was an approach to language teaching and learning in which computer technology is used as an aid to the presentation, reinforcement and assessment of material to be learned, usually including a substantial interactive element. As a result, computer-assisted instruction appears to be moderately more effective than conventional methods.
Since CALL method is more effective in helping the students to comprehend materials, especially in language learning; and many advantages we will get it. So, it’s necessary to observe CALL method in teaching listening. The title of study taken is The Improvement of Listening Skill Through CALL (Computer-Assisted Language Learning) Method at The Tenth Grade Students of SMA Negeri 1 Babadan in The Academic Year of 2009/2010


B. Statement of The Problems
In this research the researcher taken the statement of the problems is:
1. How is the implementation of CALL (Computer-Assisted Language Learning) method in improving listening skill at the Tenth Grade Students of SMA Negeri 1 Babadan in the academic year of 2009/2010?
2. Is the implementation CALL (Computer-Assisted Language Learning) method able to increase listening skill in teaching English language at the Tenth Grade Students of SMA Negeri 1 Babadan in the academic year of 2009/2010?





C. Hypothesis
Hypothesis in this study can be stated based on background of the study and statement of the problems. The hypotheses are as follows:
1. Nol Hypothesis
There isn’t any increasing of the listening skill using CALL (Computer-Asisted Language Learning) method at the Tenth Grade Students of SMAN1 Babadan
2. Alternative Hypothesis
There is any increasing of the listening skill using CALL (Computer-Asisted Language Learning) method at the Tenth Grade Students of SMAN1 Babadan


D. Objectives of The Study
Regarding of the problem statement, this study objectives as follows:
1. To describe the implementation of CALL (Computer-Assisted Language Learning) method to improve listening skill in teaching English language at tenth grade students of SMA Negeri 1 Babadan In The Schooling Year of 2009/2010
2. To find of increasing listening skill in English Language using CALL (Computer-Assisted Language Learning)



E. Significance of The Study
The significance of the study are;
1. For the teachers
a. It helps the teacher to find the better way to teach English. Especially, to improve listening skill of students;
b. It can be given to the teacher as variation in teaching English language;
c. To give an alternative to solve the problems of learning listening;
d. To make the classroom activity to be happy and enjoy.
2. For the students
a. It’s able used as preference to increase students interest in learning listening with enjoyable;
b. It can be used to broaden and develop their knowledge;
c. They could get motivate in learning English, especially to listening English.
3. School
a. It will increase the knowledge repertoire in the school;
b. It helps implementation curriculum of education quickly.

F. Organization of the Thesis
The organization of the thesis as follows:
 Chapter I : Introduction
This chapter is a global description about the whole content of the thesis. It have purpose to make easy the reader to knowing the background of study, statement of the problem, purpose of the study and significance of the study.
 Chapter II : Reviews of Related Literature
This chapter contains of theoretical analysis became as the basic of the study. It is placed in this chapter in order to the reader know the theory of the study first before they know the result.
 Chapter III : Research Methodology
This chapter told to the reader about the design of the research, the research presence, setting and subjects of the study, action research procedure, technique of data analysis, development of data validity, and the phases of study.
 Chapter IV : Research Result
This chapter is explanation about the result of the study which is contains of implementation of the data and the discussion of the result of the study.
 Chapter V : Conclusion and Suggestion
This chapter contain of conclusion of the whole thesis and also the suggestion for the riders.







CHAPTER II
THE IMPROVEMENT
OF LISTENING SKILL THROUGH CALL (COMPUTER-ASSISTED LANGUAGE LEARNING) METHOD

This chapter presents reviews of related literature used in this research. The reviews of related literature have a goal of providing previous studies and information concerned with the research problems. They are also used as a guide of presenting this study.

A. Listening
1. Definition of listening
To define what listening is, some statements can be presented in the following. Brown J,Donal et all states that listening is receiving, analyzing and interpreting oral signal that come to some-one and creating messages of the speaker . In Judi Brownell defined listening is a definite, usually voluntary, effort to apprehend acoustically. So far, Goss meant that is a process of talking what you hear and organizing it into verbal units which you could apply the meaning. Listening also can be defined as the activities of hearing the symbols of speaking with fully attentions, acquiring, appreciation, and interpretation for get information, gathered the message, also to got the meaning from communication which have applied the subject though a verbal language.
Another definition states that listening is an activity that involves receiving, deciphering and perceiving a message with intent to respond. Based on the statements above, it can be state that listening is more than just being able to hear and understand what someone else says. Also continuously respond it.
In English Hearing is different with listening. Hearing is physical ability while listening is a skill . Listening skill allow one make sense of and understand what another person is saying. In other word listening skill allow you to understand what someone is talking about. Moreover, listening skill involve etiquette, asking for clarification, showing empathy and providing an appropriate response.

2. Some Characteristics make Listening Difficulty
As you contemplate designing lessons and techniques for teaching listening skills, or that have listening components in them, a number of special characteristics of spoken language need to be taken into consideration. Second language learners need to pay special attention to such factors because they strongly influence the processing of speech, and can even block comprehension if they are not attended to. In other words, they can make the listening process difficult. The following eight characteristics of spoken language are adapted from several sources.
a. Clustering
In written language we are conditioned to attend to the sentence as the basic unit of organization. In spoken language, due to memory limitations and our predisposition for “chunking,” or clustering, we break down speech into smaller groups of words. Clauses are common constituents, but phrases within clauses are even more easily retained for comprehension. In teaching listening comprehension, therefore, you need to help students to pick out manageable clusters of words; sometimes second language learners will tray to retain overly long constituents (a whole sentences or even several sentences), or they will err in the other direction in trying to attend to every word in an utterance.
b. Redundancy
Spoken language, unlike most written language, has a good deal of redundancy. The next time you’re in a conversation, notice the rephrasings, repetitions, elaborations, and little insertions of “I mean” and “you know”. Such redundancy helps the hearer to process meaning by offering more time and extra information. Learners can train themselves to profit from such redundancy by first becoming aware that not every new sentence or phrase will necessary contain new information and by looking for the signals of redundancy.
c. Reduced forms
While spoken language does indeed contain a good deal of redundancy, it also has many reduced forms. Reduction can be phonological, morphological, syntactic, or pragmatic. These reduction pose significant difficulties, especially for classroom learners who may have initially been exposed to the full forms of the English Language.
d. Performance variables
In spoken language, except for planned discourse (speeches, lectures, etc.0, hesitations, false starts, pauses, and corrections are common. Native listeners are conditioned from very young ages to weed out such performance variables, whereas they can easily interfere with comprehension in second language learners.
Everyday casual speech by native speakers also commonly contains ungrammatical forms. Some of these forms are simple performance slips. Other ungrammaticality arises out of dialect differences that second language learners are likely to hear sooner or later.
e. Colloquial language
Learners who have been exposed to standard written English and/or “text book” language sometimes find it surprising and difficult to deal with colloquial language, idioms, slang, reduces forms, and shared cultural knowledge are all manifested at some point in conversations. Colloquialisms appear in both monologues and dialogues.
f. Rate of delivery
Virtually every language learner initially thinks that native speakers speak too fast! Actually, as Jack Richards point out, the number and length of pauses used by a speaker is more crucial to comprehension than sheer aped. Learners will nevertheless eventually need to be able to comprehend language delivered at varying rates of speed and, at times, delivered with few pauses. Unlike reading, where a person can stop and go back to reread, in listening the hearer may not always have the opportunity to stop the speaker. Instead, the stream of speech will continue to flow.
g. Stress, rhythm, and intonation
The prosodic features of the English language are very important for comprehension. Because English is a stress-timed language, English speech can be a terror for some learners as mouthfuls of syllables come spelling out between stress points. Also, intonation patterns are very significant not just for interpreting straightforward elements such as questions, endearment, insult, solicitation, praise, etc.
h. Interaction
Unless a language learner’s objective is exclusively to master specialized skill like monitoring radio broadcasts or attending lectures, interaction will play a large role in listening comprehension. Conversation is especially subject to all the rules of interaction: negotiation, clarification, attending, signals, turn-taking, and topic nomination, maintenance, and termination. So, to learn to listen is also to learn to respond and to continue a chain of listening and responding. Classroom techniques that include listening components must at some pint include instruction in the two-way nature listening. Students need to understand that good listeners are good responders. They know how to negotiate meaning so that the process of comprehending can be complete rather than being aborted by insufficient interaction.

3. Factors that Influence Listening
In addition to suggesting listening models, a growing number of scholars have contributed significantly to our understanding of listening behavior through their research into specific topics. In answer to some of the first questions that might come to your mind about listening. A few of their findings are summarized below.
a. What Are the Characteristics of an Effective Listener?
The answer is yes, and no. personal style does effect your listening ability. If you are impatient, high energy, and anxious- your tendency will to seek information that comes in neat packages. A more patient, reflective person takes more time to listen and, consequently, may be perceived as listening more effectively.
Effective listeners are open-minded and interested in a wide variety of subjects. They tend to like people and have a generally positive attitude. Keep in mind, however, that there is a wide range of listening purposes and situations. Individuals who may be very affective listening to disturbed children may panic if they have to work as an interpreter in a highly charged political arena.
b. I’m Just an Average student-Is it Still Possible for me to Improve my Listening Skills Significantly?
Even the earliest studies linked listening competence to intelligence. Almost a half century ago, Nichols (1948) realized that the best predictor of effective listening comprehension in lecture situations. Certainly, you know of individuals who are highly intelligent but who don’t demonstrate effective listening behaviors. That is because intelligence, as a listening variable, interacts with a number of other factors such as personality, motivation, attitude, and interest in the subject.
It’s also important to keep in mind that different people have different listening strength and weaknesses. While intelligence may be a significant factor in listening to difficult lecture material, listening and participating effectively in conversations or group discussions takes a different set of abilities.
c. Why Is it That When the Information Is Really Important, or When I,m Nervous About the Communication Situation, I Find it more Difficult to Listen?
Anxiety and stress have a profound effect on your ability to listen well. Your attitude toward communicating in general affects your stress level and consequently your overall listening ability. Philips (1977), for instance, defines communication reticence as it relates to listening as the inability to follow a discussion or to participate in a relevant manner. In this case, high anxiety in listening situations may lead to asking questions that have already been answered or making statements unrelated to the current topic of discussion.
While the fear of speaking is probably related to social approval, the anxiety you experience as a listener is more likely a consequence of your fear of misinterpreting or misunderstanding the speaker. Wheeless develops an assessment instrument, called the RAT test, which measures listening apprehension. Fortunately, listening anxiety can be reduced as you learn strategies for listening effectiveness and as you become more confident of your listening ability.
d. If I Start Out With a Negative Attitude, Will That Interfere With my Ability to Listen?
Your attitude almost certainly influences your listening, as it affects both the selection and perception of stimuli. Even under the best of circumstances, you tend to listen selectively. If you dislike a speaker and anticipate that she will have nothing of value to say, it is likely that what you hear will confirm your expectations.
In addition, “willingness” to listen -a basic interest in other people and their ideas- is key to concentration and accurate interpretation. Most people can improve their listening effectiveness simply by devoting more effort and energy to the activity, and by connecting what the speaker says to their personal needs and interests. As you will learn in later chapters, unless you are open-minded and sincerely interested in your partner, you are likely to block and distort information.
e. How Does Gender Influence the Listening Process?
The question of gender differences in listening has attracted considerable attention. Goleman (1978) was among the first to suggest that females perform better on tasks that involve verbal ability, while men perform best when visual skills are involved. Women are also thought to be more sensitive to nonverbal cues, suggesting that they are more likely to take these variables into account in listening situations. Although some differences are attributed to socialization or to learned behavior, others are believed to have a biological link.
f. Can I Expect my Friends From Other Cultures to Listen Differently Than I do?
An individual’s culture, background, role, and other variables determine his unique perspective. This world view influences both perceptual processes and information processing. As your school and workplace become more diverse, it becomes essential for you to recognize and value individual differences in perception and viewpoint. Taking multiple-perspectives into account will enrich your communication and decision making; ignoring them will create conflict and misunderstandings.
g. If the Speaker Is Disorganized or Distracting, Is it More Difficult for me to Listen Well?
Message and speaker variables both affect your listening. The clarity of the organization has a significant impact on your ability to comprehend and recall the information you hear. Speakers who use clear organizational strategies are easier to follow than those who present ideas randomly.A speaker’s mannerisms and delivery have an impact on her credibility and affect your attention, comprehension, and attention.
h. Do I Listen Differently to the Television Than I do to the Radio or to a Live Speaker?
Definitely. You listen differently to a videotape than you do over the telephone, and listening to a live speaker presents yet a different set of challenges. Listening retention and concentration improves, for instance, when you receive information from a live speaker rather than a videotape. This is due to an interesting concept called “social presence”, which means that the physical presence of another human being is in itself stimulating. Although we know that the addition of visual stimuli improves some listening behaviors, the accuracy of comprehension may decrease with added stimuli. In addition, when verbal and visual messages conflict, most people will choose the visual channel.
Study of channel choices and other variables has, as you might suspect, advanced our understanding of the nature of the listening process. As the importance of listening has become more widely recognized, educators and trainers have been challenged to document the effectiveness of their efforts. This, in turn, has prompted researchers to explore various means of assessing listening effectiveness.

4. Kinds of Listening
Listening is conducted for some purposes. The general purposes of listening are to get information, receiving message and understand what the people said. But, not only those are, also included specific purposes which caused kinds of listening.
Adrian Doff and Tarigan offer two kinds of listening: Extensive listening and Intensive listening. Extensive listening means sometimes we listen with no particular purposes in mind and often without much concentration, likes this statements:
"Extensive listening adalah sejenis kegiatan menyimak mengenai hal-hal yang lebih umum dan lebih bebas terhadap suatu ujaran, tidak perlu di bawah bimbingan langsung dari seorang guru. Pada umumnya, menyimak ektensif dapat dipergunakan untuk dua tujuan yang berbeda."
Examples of this kind of listening are listening to the radio while doing some housework, chatting to a friend. Usually we do not very closely, unless we hear something that particularly interests us, and after wards we may not remember much of what we heard.
Intensive listening means at other times we listen for particular purposes, to find out information we need to know . Beside that Tarigan defined intensive listening had the specific activity and controlled in some other materials. This is could be used to language programs.
At the intensive listening, we listen for the most important points or for particular information. Usually, we know forehand what we are listening for (the things we want to know) and this helps us to listen. For the examples in here is listening to a piece of important news on the radio; listening to someone explaining how to operate a machine. In this situation, we listen much more closely, but we do not achieve everything we hear with equal concentration.
In connection with kinds of listening, it can be concluded there are two kinds of listening; extensive listening and intensive listening. Extensive listening is general listening with many purposes. Intensive listening is conducted to find the message from their listened. In class, we are usually concerned with this kind of listening.

5. The listening Process
Here will be explained the process of listening, they are:
a. Hearing
Hearing involves the accurate reception of sounds. To hear, you must focus your attention on the speaker; discriminate among sounds, and concentrate. This chapter introduces the physiological aspects of hearing and the principles that govern attention. In addition to learning, techniques that improve your concentration, you will also be introducing to the effects of listener apprehension and the importance of nonverbal attending behaviors.
Hearing, as you know, takes place even when you are alone. The ability to appreciate music, to enjoy nature, and to recognize other sounds in your environment depends upon the sensitivity and discrimination developed through your hearing.
b. Understanding
The ability to understand what you hear, listening comprehension, improves with practice. A number of processes involved in comprehension are interpersonal; that is, they take place inside your head. This section familiarizes you with the nature of human information processing and the concept the inner speech. You learn guidelines to help you improve your understanding of message as you develop strategies to build your vocabulary, ask appropriate questions, and take efficient notes.
c. Remembering
There has been a great deal of research on memory. Remembering is essential if you intend to apply what you have heard in future situations. This chapter acquaints you with the three basic memory systems and the work that has been done in listening training and assessment with regard to the memory process. You will learn key techniques for retaining and recalling information as well as the obstacles that inhibit memory. Creative approaches to problem solving also addressed.
d. Interpreting
When you interpret messages you do two things. First, you take into account the total communication context so that you are better able to understand the meaning of what is said from the speaker’s point of view. Your ability to empathize, or to see a situation from the other person’s perspective, requires that you pay attention to emotional meaning and to the communications context. Second, effective listeners let their partners know that they have been understood. This chapter, then, introduces you to topics related to nonverbal communication such as facial expression, body posture, eye behavior, silence, and vocal cues so that you can develop greater sensitivity to these important dimensions of the communications context.
e. Evaluating
You listen from unique point of view and are influenced by your perceptual filters your past experiences, attitudes, personal values, and predispositions. It is therefore impossible not to evaluate, to some extent, everything you hear. Understanding the principles of logic and reasoning, and recognizing bias, stereotyping, propaganda, and other factors that may influences the conclusions you draw, is essential. Effective listeners, as you might suspect, deliberately reduce the influence of their own viewpoint until they have first understood the speaker’s ideas. Objectivity, in this sense, is prerequisite to making wise evaluations. This unit sensitizes you to language and propaganda, and provides guidelines for assessing speaker credibility.

6. The Implications for the English Language Classroom
a. Selecting texts for listening
In selecting texts for classroom use it is worth considering the possible dimensions of difference we need to address; for example, the distinction between monologue and dialogue, both of which will be encountered by learners in listening situations outside the classroom. And there are variations within each of these categories in terms of the characteristics of particular types of monologue or dialogue. Table xx below highlights some of these.
Table 2.1: Types of text features
Nu. Types of texts Description
A. Monologue
1 Unscripted (but possibly prepared), e.g. lectures, talks, speechs. Some of the features listed under 4 but greater clarity and better organized, probably with more discourse markers and possibly slower.
2 Scripted, e.. news, written talks, stories read to children Similar to written prose with little repetition, rephrasing, or other performance features; reasonable speed and relatively formal and deliberate style
3 Public announcements Speed careful and moderate, formal style with ritual phrases, heavy information load, often uncertain acoustics, distorted by noise and therefore difficult to hear
B. Dialogue
4 Unscripted, spontaneous conversations between native speakers, or involving non native speakers Repetitions, rephrasings, reformulations, hesitations, natural rhythm, contracted forms, incomplete sentences, fact pace, variety of accents, colloquialisms
5 Spontaneous commentary Many of the features of 4, especially incomplete sentences and varying speed, e.g. very fast sports commentary
6 Telephone conversations Some features of 4, but generally more structures and turn-taking; more careful enunciation, slower pace. Problems of gaps in the message as a result of noise, distortion, and lack of visual clues

b. Design listening activities
In here, we discussed of implications for the design of classroom listening activities and procedures. For example, we have seen that creating purposes for listening can motivate students, and that a pre-listening phase will enable teachers to introduce necessary schematic knowledge and some of the language which learners will encounter in the text. It has now become standard practice to use the following procedure when dealing with a listening text in the class:
1. The teacher and the students prepare for the listening in a number of ways. Various activities are used to help students to become familiar with the topic, to be exposed to some language features of the text or to its overall structure, and to activate any relevant prior knowledge they have. The teacher’s role is create interest, reason for listening, and the confidence to listen.
2. Before setting the students to do a while-listening task, the teacher makes sure that they have all understood what it involves, e.g. filling in a chart.
3. The students carry out the task independently without intervention from the teacher, unless it is clear from monitoring them while they work, that some have misunderstood what is required. Although the listening itself is done individually, students can be encouraged to check their responses in pairs or groups as soon as they are ready.
4. In a feedback session, the teacher and students check and discuss the responses to the while-listening task. The teacher’s role is to help students see how successful they have been in doing the task.
5. Follow-up activities can be various kinds, but at this stage the teacher may well wish to focus on features of the text which will assist further development of effective listening.
7. Developing Listening Skill
Until recently, much attention in formal education was given to reading and writing, a little to speaking, and essentially none to listening. Now, however, listening recognized as a skill that, like all skills, can be improved with practice.
There are a number of techniques the teacher can use to improve the student listening skills:
a. Directed listening. Before orally presenting a story or lesson, give the students some objectives or questions to guide their listening. Start with short passages and one or two objectives. Then gradually increase the length of the passage and the number and complexity level of the objectives or questions.
b. Following directions. Give the students directions individually or as a group on audiotape and ask them to follow these instructions. You can evaluate students’ ability to follow the audio instructions by examining work sheets or products of the activity. When giving directions orally, the “say it only once” rule should be observed so that a value is placed on both the teacher’s and students’ time and the incentive to listen is reinforced.
c. Listening for main ideas, details, or inferences. Keeping the age level of the students in mind, you can present an oral passage and ask the students to listen for the main idea and then write it down. A similar technique can be used with details and inferences to be drawn from the passage.
d. Using context in listening. Younger students can learn to distinguish meanings in an auditory context by listening to sentences with words missing and then supplying the appropriate words.
e. Analyzing the structure of a presentation. The students can asked to outline (analyze and organize) an oral presentation. The teacher can then determine how well they were able to discern the main ideas and to identify the subtopics.
f. Distinguishing between relevant and irrelevant information. After listening to an oral presentation of information, he student can be asked to identify the main idea and then rate (from most to least relevant) all other ideas that are presented.

8. Authentic Listening Tasks
Ideally, the language assessment field would have a stockpile of listening test types that are cognitively demanding, communicative, and authentic, not to mention interactive by means of an integration with speaking. However, the nature of a test as a sample of performance and a set of tasks with limited time frames implies anequally limited capacity to mirror all the real-world contexts of listening performance. These is no such thing as a communicative test. Every test requires some components of communicative language ability, and no test covers them all. Similarly, with the nation of authenticity, every task shares some characteristics with target-language tasks, and no is completely authentic.
If we take the liberty of stretching the concept of assessment to extend beyond tests and into a broader framework of alternatives. Here are some possibilities.
a. Note-taking. In the academic world, classroom lectures by professors are common features of a non-native English user’s experience. One form of midterm examination at the American Language Institute at San Francisco State University uses a 15-minute lecture as a stimulus. One among several response formats includes note-taking by the test-takers. These notes are evaluated by the teacher on a 30 point system, they are (1) 0-15 points to visual representation (2) 0-10 points to accuracy (3)
points to symbols and abbreviations.
The process of scoring is time consuming, and because of the subjectivity of the point system, it lacks some reliability. But the gain is in offering students an authentic task that mirrors exactly what they have been focusing on in the classroom. The notes become an indirect but arguably valid form of assessing global listening comprehension. The task fulfills the criteria of cognitive demand, communicative language, and authenticity.
b. Editing. Another authentic task provides both a written and a spoken stimulus, and requires the test-taker to listen for discrepancies. Scoring achieves relatively high reliability as there are usually a small number of specific differences that must be identified. Here is the way the task proceeds.
1). Test-takers read: the written stimulus material
2). Test-takers hear: a spoken version of the stimulus that deviates, in a finite number of facts or opinions, from the original written from.
3). Test-takers mark; the written stimulus by circling any words, phrases, facts, or opinions that show a discrepancy between the two versions.
c. Interpretive tasks. One of the listening tasks described above was paraphrasing a story or conversation. As interpretive task extends the stimulus material to a longer stretch of discourse and forces test-taker to infer a response. Potential stimulate include song lyrics, poetry, radio/television news report and an oral account of an experience.
d. Retelling. In a related task, test-takers listen to a story or news event and simply retell it, or summarize it, either orally or in writing. In so doing, test-takers must identify the gist, main idea, purpose, supporting points, and/or conclusion to show full comprehension.

B. CALL (Computer-Assisted Learning Language) Method
1. Teaching Method
Teaching is one of educative activities. In educational system, teaching plays an important role in which an interaction between a teacher and student occurs. There is an assumption that teaching is a process of transforming knowledge to students. In the teaching process, a teacher stands in front of the class to present a certain subject matter and students are required to sit and listen it. Having completed the subject matter, the teacher provides the students with a set of academic tasks. In the end of the class, the teacher evaluates the academics tasks. In short, teaching is considered as a delivery system in which the students are required to understand the subject matter without knowing the process. Nana Sudjana states, “teaching is to manage and to make organization of students’ environment, so it can give support and to create of students to do learning activities.”
Whereas teaching English is the activity where the teacher is giving English lesson and the students respond it. Teaching is to show how to do something so that they will be able to do themselves . Adrian says:
“Teach English is a teacher training course which develops practical skills in English as foreign language. It can be used; 1) on in service training course for teachers working at secondary level in school or language institute., 2) in pre-service training of secondary teachers, as practical component of a methodology course and as preparation for teaching practice., 3) as part of a refresher course in practical methodology for more experienced.”

In other statement stated that teaching English to children and adults are not useful but also do not difficult. Teaching English were difficult than the other subjects because it is as foreign language and correlated curriculum in the school. Then, English will be learned until senior high school, and it needs the teachers who have creativities to teach and to give appropriate method that can support in teaching English.

a. Meaning of Method
The word method comes from Greek “methodos”, which in turn come from two Greek words: meta (after) and hodos (way). In the dictionary defines it as a general or established way of doing anything or the means or manner by which it is presented or taught.
In the post, acquisition of facts and information was stressed and so method had to deal mostly with the job of imparting subject matter. In class teaching, method meant any orderly routine to be followed in accomplishing certain definite results. Presently, method includes everything the teacher does or neglects to do which causes behavioral changes in pupils.
Furthermore other meaning of methods are the procedures of instruction that are selected to help learners achieve the objectives or to internalize the content or message. It addressed that methods have principles to acquired subject matter by students.
Teaching method is one component involved in the teaching learning process. Soetomo defines teaching method as a tools to get target learning in teaching process, the same opinion is offered by Winarno Surahmad that methods are a manner which have functions catches a goal of learning process. Furthermore, Brown defines teaching method as;
“A generalized, prescribed set of classroom specifications for accomplishing linguistic objectives. Methods tend to be primarily concerned with teacher and student roles and behaviors, and secondarily with such features as linguistic and subject matter objectives, sequencing, and materials. They are almost always thought of as being broadly to a variety of audiences in a variety of contexts.”

On the other words, the teacher has to take into account some factors to select an appropriate teaching method. The factors are students, educational objectives, teaching situation, teaching facility, and teacher’s characteristic and professionalism. Once with other have correlated and supporting the methods.
So, teaching method has an essential position in the teaching-learning process. Teaching method enables the teacher to transform the subject matter to the students easier. To achieve educational objectives, the teacher must know what appropriate teaching methods will be applied.

b. Function of method
Method from the bridge between the child and subject matter, the former at one end and the letter at the other. The bridge enables the child to get to the other end. Method makes learning easier. Method also links the child and society. By means of the classroom method used, the child’s personality enfolds and he learns to adjust to his surroundings. The attitudes, character traits, and emotions desirable to society are developed and he learns restraint and self control. In group work, for instance, a child learns to cooperate with others. Dividing the class into committees gives children opportunities to develop their interests. The sharing period teaches children to give and take. The inductive method educates the child to postpone judgment until further verification.
The traditional concept of method placed more emphasis on the how. Today’s newer and broader concept of method places more stress on the why rather than on the how, in line with suggested reforms in teaching methodology which advocate adoption of “more and more teaching strategies that are inquiry and problem-oriented in order to develop the ability to think, rationalize, and make proper decisions.

c. Characteristics of a Good Method
Is there a typical or ideal method that will be good for any subject, any class of pupils, and any age? In the past there was a search for this general method, but method cannot be standardized simply because children do not belong to the same mold. Perhaps there should be as many methods as there are individual differences among children. There is no single best method, but there are many good methods.
Beside that, a teaching method is good if:
1. It makes use of the principles of learning and permits the operation of these principles such as readiness, exercise, and effect as provided for. Review and repetition make use of exercise.
2. It utilizes the principle of “ learning by doing”. Since one learns through self-activity, provision should be made for direct experiencing. Activities should be planned so as to give children opportunities for doing, reacting, and undergoing.
3. It provides for individual differences. A method should be flexible enough to serve the bright, the average, and slow learners. There should be provision for meeting different needs, interests, aptitudes, and emotional maturity.
4. It stimulates thinking and reasoning. If the method merely encourages memorization and glib responses to factual questions (although memorization in itself is not bad), it is not a good method. Problem come up every day in this modern world and the child must learn to be independent and to solve his own difficulties. He should get this training in the classroom.
5. It provides for growth and development. Children should grow in knowledge and ideas; in habits, skills, and anilities; in attitudes and sentiments. Varied activities and experiences that will take care of development in various directions should be included in the lesson procedure.

d. Factors That Determine Method
With changing educational goals, the choice of method becomes important. How is a teacher to decide what method he is to use/ the following factors help determine this:
1). The educational objective and the aim of the lesson
2). Nature of the subject matter or the lesson
3). The nature of the learners
4). School equipment and facilities
5). The teacher
The educational objective and the aim of the lesson. If the educational objective is to train citizens for a democratic way of life, the traditional question and answer method would be clearly out of place. On the other hand, the socialized form of the recitation would be out of place when the objective is to demonstrate a dictatorship.
If the aim of the lesson is to make certain responses automatic, the drill method would be the most appropriate. If the teacher wants to arouse certain feelings and attitudes, the appreciation lesson would be the most suitable. If training in logical thinking is what the teacher desires, then the problem method should perhaps be used.
Nature of the subject matter or the lesson. Different types of subjects and different types of lessons call for different methods. Take arithmetic and literature. The methods most often used in the teaching of arithmetic will not be the ones primarily used in the teaching of literature. A spelling lesson may make use of contents, but a lesson in science would probably utilize the laboratory or experimental method.
The nature of the learners. Since the students are considered the center of educative process, method must be suited to him. His age, grade, maturity, ability, interest, needs, experience, health, and growth must be considered.
The lecture method may be satisfactory in collage where students have a longer attention span, but it has no place in the grades nor in the high school. The use of dramatic play and games may be very appealing to children in the primary grades but not to those in the high school.
School equipment and facilities. Some schools have modern equipment and facilities, such as audio visual rooms, projectors, TV, radio, laboratory rooms, music rooms with pianos, a gymnasium, a well-equipped library and laboratories, and plenty of teaching aids. In a school with a gymnasium, physical education can be taught effectively and children can experience the different types of physical activities. A school without playground and where physical education is taught indoors would be limited in physical education, sports, or physical fitness activities.
The teacher. People have their own convictions and ways of doing things. Teachers also have theirs. They may prefer certain methods over others and use these more often. Some teachers are more at home with the traditional methods while a number favor the modern ones. It does not really matter what method the teacher uses provided he gets results in the shortest time possible. He must master the method, however, and he must know the principles, the steps, and the techniques to use.





2. Computer
a. Defenition of Computers
Computer are electronic machines which can accept data in a certain form, process the data and give the results of the processing in a specified format as information. Added Azhar defined “komputer adalah mesin yang dirancang khusus untuk memanipulasi informasi yang diberi kode, mesin elektronik yang otomatis melakukan pekerjaan dan perhitungan sederhana dan rumit”.
In addition, the computer with virtually instantaneous response to student input, its extensive capacity to store and manipulate information, and its unmatched ability to serve many individual students simultaneously is widely used in instruction.
Remacha introduce a viewpoint that computers can help students perform mathematical operations and solve difficult questions. They could be used to access the internet, teach courses such as computer-aided design, language learning, programming, mathematics, etc.
According in statements above stated that computers can be an object of instruction, as in courses on computer science and computer literacy. It also a tool where could be used during instructions to do complex calculations, data manipulations, and words processing.
b. Advantages of computers
The interactive nature of computers in instruction underlies most of their advantages. As an active mode of instruction, they require learner participation. Specific advantages are the following:
1) Simply allowing students to learn at their own pace produces significant time savings over conventional classroom instruction.
2) High-speed personalized responses to learner actions yield a high rate of reinforcement.
3) The patient, personal manner that can be programmed provides a more positive affective climate, especially for slower learners.
4) Color, music, and animated graphics can add realism and appeal to drill exercises, laboratory activities, simulations, and so on.
5) The record-keeping ability of the computer makes individualized instruction feasible; individual prescriptions can be prepare for all students and their progress can be monitored.
6) Computer-based instruction can improve efficiency and effectiveness.
7) With the advent of easy-to-use authoring systems, some instructors can develop their own customized computer- based learning.
So, we can conclude that computer is one of good media to study English. Students can learn better, faster, easier, more accurately, and more enjoyable with a computer.

3. CALL (Computer-Assisted Language learning) Method
For this moment computer is not something special in human life especially in educational, business, and economic sectors in the world. Computer is the urgent tools that helped people to finish their activities. In teaching and learning process the usage of computer method famous with Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL).
Some of fellow terms are synonymous with CALL:
1. Computer-Aided Instruction (CAI)
2. Computer assisted learning (CAL)
3. Computer assisted language instruction (CALI)
4. Computer assisted language teaching (or testing) (CALT)
5. Computer adaptive teaching (testing) (CAT)
6. Computer based training (CBT)
7. Computer mediated communication (CMC)
8. Computer mediated instruction (CMI)
9. Intelligent computer assisted language learning (ICALL)
The acronyms above are CALL while some shift focus to narrower concerns. CALL is closely related to many other disciplines and the computer. As a tool to aid teaching and learning, CALL is often subsumed within them. CALL know includes highly interactive and communicative support for listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Including extensive used of multimedia CD-ROM, and the internet.
a. Definition of CALL (Computer-Assisted Language Learning)
According David Dunan CALL is any process in which a learner uses a computer and, as a result, improves his or her language. Under this definition, CALL covers a broad range of activities. This is reflected in the diverse topics one is likely to read in CALL journals: materials design, explanations of computer, and the computer as a mode of instruction, to name a few. CALL materials include those specifically created to teach language, as well as computer-based materials adapted for teaching language (for example, English language newspaper Web sites or computer games with heavy English content).
Further, another definition CALL as the search for and study of applications of the computer in language teaching and learning and Ajwar Arsyad explains CALL is “suatu sistem penyampaian materi pelajaran berbasis mikroprosesor yang pelajarannya dirancang dan diprogam kedalam sistem tersebut “ .
The last definition of CALL was an approach to language teaching and learning in which computer technology used as an aid to the presentation, reinforcement and assessment of material to have learned, usually including a substantial interactive element.


b. Classroom techniques for teaching CALL
The following may whet your appetite for CALL:
1) Collaborative projects. With as many as two to four students to a terminal, research projects can be carried out utilizing data available on the World Wide Web and other information resources. Analysis of data can be done with data management or statistical processing software. Charts, graphics, and text can be generated for presentation of findings to the rest of the class.
2) Peer-editing of compositions. The exchange of diskettes or of material on networked computers offers students an efficient means of peer-editing of drafts of compositions. Many instructors can easily manage comments on final drafts through this technology.
3) E-mail. The most obvious form of using e-mail for English teaching is giving students the possibility for actual communication with individuals around the world. Discussion lists provide opportunities for reading and writing on topics of interest. E-mail “pen pals” have become popular. Through the web, certain chat programs offer students the novelty of real-time communication. Teachers have used e-mail communication for such things as dialogue journals with students and collaboration with other teachers.
4) Web page design. A rapidly growing number of educational institutions have offered courses to students in web page design. In the process, students not only become acquainted with computer technology in general but utilize English in doing research on a topic, composing and designing, and collaborating with other students.
5) Reinforcement of classroom material. With ready availability of a wide array of software programs, course objectives can be reinforced, and added material can be made available. A number of textbooks now come with an accompanying CD-ROM disk filled with practice exercises, shelf-check tests, and extra reading material. Some course programs (such as Brown 1999) include an on-line section in each unit, which encourages use of internet-related activity. The process of learning to read a foreign language can be enhanced through computer adaptive programs that offer lexical and grammatical information at predicted points of difficulty.
6) Games and simulations. Not to be overlooked are the many engaging games and simulations, many of them involving verbal language, that present students with simulating problem-solving tasks that get them to use functional language to pursue the goals of the games. Carefully planned uses of such games in the classroom (e.g., for practicing certain verbs, tenses, questions, locatives, etc.) add some interest to a classroom.
7) Computer adaptive testing. Currently, most widely standardized tests are computer-based. Sooner or later, most language students will need to perform such a test, designed to gauge the test-taker’s level as the responses are made. During the early items, right and wrong answers are electronically analyzed in order to present later items that will be neither too easy nor too difficult and present an optimal challenge.
8) Speech processing. Still on the horizon, but getting close to the cutting edge, is the affordable technological capacity for a computer to process (understand) human speech and respond to it. Speech recognition programs for the language classroom have a multitude of potential applications: simple exercises in pronunciation, feedback graphs showing accuracy of a learner’s control of phonemic and prosodic elements, faster input for those who don’t type rapidly, and the wish list goes on. While “we’ve still got a very long way to go before CALL can be accurately called ‘intelligent’ “ (Wachaurer 1998:67), this new technology is becoming more and more sophisticated.

c. Principles for teaching CALL
1. Evaluate the appropriateness of the software program or computer-based resource
Expertise learners who determine what they know and do not know about a task are more likely to engage in productive work. Does the program pretest learners to evaluate what portions of the program will be of most use to them? Teachers can help in the process by identifying each learner’s strengths and weaknesses and supplying appropriate software. Is the program at a challenging level for your learners?
Motivation learners are usually faced with extrinsic motivation and manufacture intrinsic motivation when it suits them. Teachers and learners need to create motivation trough establishing goals and understanding how CALL activities can help achieve them.
Program objectives is it clear what the program aims to accomplish in terms of learning? Are these objectives realistic?
Target audience many CALL materials may be aimed at specific audiences such as business people or primary students. Is the program pitched at students in your class?
Cognitive overhead how difficult is it to learn how to use the program?
Cost is the program worth it? Is it better to get a few stand-alone copies rather than an expensive site-license?
Pedagogical approach is the program behaviorist or constructivist? Does the program teach, or does it merely test?
Authenticity does the program make use of authentic materials and situations? Do these materials relate to the experiences of the learners?
Feedback how does the program offer feedback?
Role of the learner/teacher what is expected of the learner? What is expected of the teacher?
Self-study/classroom is the program intended for self-study or class-room use?
Technological appropriateness does the program require extra hardware or software to make it work efficiently?
2. Create an environment in which CALL is supported
arrange the CALL classroom to maximize interaction many early CALL classroom were integrated into traditional listening labs with dividers between learners to ensure privacy and discourage cheating during examinations. This type of isolation of learners, especially in a row-on-row situation, discourages interactions and opportunities for scaffolded learning. CALL classrooms should be organized so that learners have opportunities to share computer screens and discuss their common progress.
Ensure easy access to CALL engaging in CALL should be as painless as taking a book out of a library or using any other common academic resource. Too often computing time is restricted, access to software tightly controlled, and budgets for very visible hardware are not matched with funds for software, upgrades, and repairs.
3. Monitor learner participation in CALL programs and encourage autonomy
determine roles when learners work together at the computer, they often select roles for themselves. Depending on the presentation of the software, learners may see the computer as a form of television providing passive entertainment in which they do not need to engage, or they may see it as a teacher, or even a kind of fellow learner.
4. Encourage the use of CALL programs as a starting point for collaboration and learner interaction
encourage collaboration have learners use the computer as an area for brainstorming. This is made more effective as the learners simultaneously search for information to aid in discussions. As learners interact, they help each other learn at a level appropriate to their language abilities. Collaboration can also take place on the internet, though e-mail penpal or keypal arrangements.

d. Phases of CALL (Computer-Assisted Language Learning)
There are phases of CALL, those are:
1) Behaviorist CALL
- Implemented in 1960’s and based on the behaviorist theories of learning.
- It could be referred to as “ drill and practice”
- In this case, the computer was as a vehicle for delivering instructional materials to the student.
2) Communicative CALL
- It was based on the communicative approach to teaching which became famous in the 1970’s and 1980’s.
- This approach felt that the drill and practice programs of the previous decade did not allow enough authentic communications to be of much value.
3) Integrative CALL Multimedia
- Multimedia technology – exampled today by CD-ROM-allows a variety of media text, graphics, sound, animation, and video, to be accessed on a single machine.

e. Advantage of CALL (Computer-Assisted Language Learning)
According to Arimurti, CALL Have some advantages bellow:
1) CALL is good for motivating students to study English
2) Students can get different types of input using a computer.
3) Learning can be individualized using computers.
4) CALL can overcome barriers of time and place
5) Teachers can get materials from commercial companies, networks, or databases, even from foreign countries.
6) The fun factor
7) Real-life skill building in computer use
Based of the statement above, CALL (Computer-Assisted Language Learning) is a good ways to build or increase the students’ knowledge especially in learning foreign language.


















CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter presents the research methodology used in this study. The existence of the research methodology has a goal of guiding as in order to work systematically. The research methodology covers a set of research activities conducted by researcher. It involves design of the research, the research presence, setting and subjects of the study, action research procedure, technique of data analysis, development of data validity, and the phases of study.

A. Design of the Research
1. Approach
Qualitative approach is used in this research. Qualitative approach use to describe and analyze phenomenon, incident, society activities, attitude, believe, perception, the people though individually and in community.
This approach used because the research wants to describe and analyze the problem that is implementation CALL (Computer-Assisted Language Learning) method in Listening teaching learning.
2. Type of the Research
Type of the research is Classroom Action Research (CAR). The following are the discussions:
a. Definition of Action Research
According to Mc. Taggart “……..action research is not merely about learning, [but]………is about knowledge production and about the improvement of practice [amongst similarly] committed groups”.
Stephen Kemmis in Kunandar states:
“Action research is a form of self –reflection inquiry undertaken by participants in social (including educational) situation in order to improve the rationality and justice of (1) their own social or educational practices, (2) their understanding of these practice and (3) the situation in which the practices are carried out. It is most rationally empowering when undertaken by participants collaboratively, thought it is taken by individuals and sometimes in cooperation with “outsiders” ”.

Action research is the process of systematically testing new ideas in the classroom or school, analyzing the result, and deciding to implement the new idea or begin the process again with another idea. Action research differs from formal research conducted by education theorist because it is typically designed and controlled by the teacher him- or herself.
In this study the researcher conducted in collaboration between the researcher and the classroom teacher. The collaborator was one of the English teachers who taught class X.4 at the first semester students of SMAN 1 Babadan.
b. The characteristics of Action Research
Based on the definition above, it can be drawn some points of the characteristic of action research as follow:
1) Action research always arises from some specific problems.
2) The goal of action research is to improve the quality of the education.
3) Action research can be undertaken by collaborative or individual.
4) The validity is determined by the result in overcoming the
problems.
5) The main focus of action research is in classroom and schools.
c. Models of Classroom Action Research
According McNiff the design of Classroom Action Research has four steps: (1) planning of action, (2) implementing of action, (3)
observing of action, and (4) reflecting of action. The cyclical process can be seen in the figure 3.1.



Figure 3.1. Classroom Action Research Steps (Adapted from McNiff:1988)


















The first step of the study was begun by doing a preliminary study toward the implementation of teaching English class X.4 at the first semester students of SMAN 1 Babadan particularly the students listening performance activity to identify the class problems. The finding of the preliminary study was then discussed by the researcher with the English teacher. Based on the finding in the preliminary study, the researcher made a plan of teaching (lesson plan).
In the planning step, the researcher prepared the lesson plan for teaching listening, carried out the preparation of the action research as conducting material and the scenario of CALL method.
In the implementing step, the researcher implemented the lesson plan that has been designed. The lesson plan was implemented during one meeting.
In the observing step, the researcher and collaborator recorded and collected data about how well the CALL method achieved the goal/criteria of success. This step consisted of important points such as criteria of success, kind and source of data, and instrument and technique of data collection.
In the reflecting step, the researcher focused on making a judgment whether the study was successful or not. In this stage, the researcher compared the data analysis with criteria of success. This study was continued to the next cycle when the criteria of success were achieved yet. In the next cycle, the researcher made some revisions of teaching strategy.

B. The Research Presence
In the study, the researcher acted as the one who implemented the method and the collaborator (English teacher Class X.4) acted as the one who observed the researcher and students’ activities when the teaching and learning process was taking place.

C. Setting and Subjects of the Study
1. Setting of the Study
a. Place and Time of Study
This research takes place at SMAN 1 Babadan Ponorogo. This school is located at Perikanan St., Pondok district, Babadan and it’s about 5 km to the north from Seloaji bus station. Here were building in 1996 and it has used to study in 1997. The researcher chose the school as the field of the study for the following reasons.
1). As a Leading to International Standard School, the researcher found out that the students’ listening skill still needs improvement. In this case, they rarely taught listening in the class and they were needed interesting methods. These made their listening comprehension was low.
2). The English teacher still had problems to find appropriate strategy to improve the students’ listening skill.
3). CALL method had never been applied at this school before so that the researcher through the study introduced it in order the students were actively in listening.
This research will conducted from October to November at the first semester of the tenth grade students in academic years 2009-2010.
b. The History of SMAN 1 Babadan Ponorogo
Historically the building of this school has long history. This school built because of it needed society of Babadan city, for case to the education development. Firstly, the Babadan government applied idea to building Senior High School where located in here. Thus, Ponorogo Government agrees this idea. Began from 1996 year’s this school has built together with society.
The expense gathered from the government and too society. The ground has bought by society until building this school. The building finished five room used to classroom are three, one to library, one to chemistry laboratory, one to office and the last to administration room.
At the 1997 the school was using to study and this year established as the year of existed SMA Negeri 1 Babadan, exactly on the January, 29th 1997. At this time, the head master is Drs. Sutarlan where so occupied in SMA Negeri 2 Ponorogo.
c. The Structure of Organization of SMAN 1 Babadan Ponorogo
The Operational Structure of Organization of SMAN 1 Babadan and the complete explanation of the duties and functions can be seen on the appendix.

2. Subject of The Study
SMAN 1 Babadan has 6 classrooms or learning groups of year 2009/2010 and the subject of the research is one class of the Class X.4 students which has 35 students and all of them were involved in the teaching learning process. Where are the sum of female were 24 and the male 11. The Class is the best intelligent than others tenth grade classes.

D. Action Research Procedure
This study conducted in a form of cycle through some steps. They were doing preliminary study, planning the action, implementing the action, observing the action, and reflecting the action.
1. Preliminary Study
The preliminary studies had been done once by the recearcher namely in first week in October 20-21st 2009 in order to obtain data about factual condition in terms of teaching and learning problem in the English subject especially in the listening skill of the class X.4.
The preliminary was carried out through two stages by the researcher. The first stage, the research did direct class observation. In this stage, the researcher came to the class and observed the teaching English activities done by the teacher and particularly the students’ listening skill. The second stage, the researcher interviewed to the both teacher and students about listening skill and the method had been used.
The data obtained from the preliminary studies were analyzed by the researcher in order to identify the main problems in the teaching listening. The researcher came to the final conclusion that it was found the main problems in the teaching listening either from students’ side and teacher’s side. From the students’ side that teaching listening rarely to teach and they were not interesting to the method had used. These made their listening were lack. On the other hand, from teacher’ side, she till had problems to find appropriate method to teaching listening.
On the basis findings, the researcher proposed CALL (Computer-Assisted Language Learning) to solve the problems. Then, a plan of action was set up in order to solve the problems. The action was intended to increase the students’ listening skill and the teaching of listening as well.
2. Planning of Action
This section discussed the activities concerning with the planning of action which was conducted by the researcher and his collaborator. It comprised a lesson plan for teaching listening, preparation of the action research such as conducting the pre-test and the scenario of CALL method.
a. Lesson Plan for Teaching Listening
Before conducting teaching and learning activity, the researcher and the collaborator designed the lesson plan which covered instructional objective, material and the media, teaching procedure, and procedure of evaluation. The lesson plan was designed based on the following items.
1). Instructional Objectives
Instructional Objectives were outcome from indicators. Formulating instructional objectives was very important to decide before conducting activity because it directed the researcher to achieve the expected result of teaching learning process from their teaching plan. Besides, instructional objectives provided the framework for the researcher to guide his students in learning activities and gave directions for the researcher to achieve the indicators.
2). Material and Media
Material and media played an important role in teaching learning process because the teacher could select and prepared appropriate materials as well as media. In this study were provided based on the indicators as stated in the lesson plan. The researcher also prepared teaching material and media which correlated with CALL Method, such as CD, OHP, Laptop, and loudspeaker.
3). Procedure of Implementation
Dealing with the procedures of implementation, the implementation of CALL method in the teaching of listening was divided into three stages: pre-listening stage, whilst-listening stage, and post-listening stage.
In the pre-listening stage, in the beginning the teacher asked some questions about the material to the students, it aimed interested students to learn this text deeply. Then, she explained the material to the class.
In the whilst-listening stage, the teacher assigned the students to listen the text. The teacher annotated the students to write the difficult vocabularies during listening the text. Then, the teacher divided students in pairs to achieve analytic test which must be answered consist of the text and retell this text in front of the class. Then, they were discussed the answers and retell in front of the class. Teacher observed by observation checklist and field note. In the observation checklist form included some elements, such as: pronunciation, comprehensibility, vocabulary, and confidence.
In the post-listening stage, teacher gave feedback toward the students’ listening performance. This feedback will help the students in preparing for the next listening.
4). Procedure of Assessment
The researcher applied the procedures of assessment using going assessment. She also employed two kinds of assessment; they were process and product assessment. The process assessment focused on the students’ progress in listening using CALL method. In assessing the students’ progress during the listening activity, the researcher used observation checklist and field notes. On the other hand, product assessment focused on the final product. That was listening product. Here, the researcher and collaborator made analytic test for scoring student’ final listening product.
b. Preparation of the Action Research
The preparations of the action research covered; conducting the pre-test to measure the preceding result of students’ skill in listening and making scenario of CALL method.
1). Conducting the Pre-test
The pre-test was administered before the implementation of the action research. It was conducted on November 4th 2009. Here, the teacher assigned the students listening test by using computer. The students listen and retell in about 20 minutes and then assessed. The pre-test was designed to find the students’ current listening comprehension.
Based on the result of the pre-test, there were only 9 students could reach the mark 75 (good qualification). The rest were 26 out of 35 students who got less than 75.
2). The Scenario of CALL Method
In this step, the researcher and the collaborator set up the overall plan concerning the implemented action that was the method of CALL. The application of CALL method can be seen at the table bellow:
Table 3.1 Scenario of CALL Method
Stages Teacher’s Activity Students’ Activity
Pre-listening Giving questions to interested students which correlated the text Answers the questions interchangeable
Explaining the materials Paying attention to the teacher
Whilst-listening Assigning the students to listen carefully Listening the text carefully
Dividing students in pairs and giving copies of analytic test Discussing the answers in pairs
Assigning the students to retell the text Collected the analytic text and retell in front of the class
Observing with field note and observation checklist
Post-listening giving feedback toward the students’ listening performance Paying attention to the teacher’s feed back

3. Implementation
After the planning was finished, the researcher implemented the scenario in lesson plan of CALL method that has been designed together with collaborator. In the implementation, the researcher acted as a teacher who implemented the CALL method, as observer and assessor. While collaborator acted as the observer and assessor. The scenario was implemented during one meeting in a cycle.
4. Observations
Observation is the technique of collecting data, doing by direct observation toward object of the study. According to Arikunto “Pengamatan secara langsung adalah kegiatan pemusatan perhatian terhadap suatu obyek dengan menggunakan seluruh alat indera. Jadi, mengobservasi dapat dilakukan melalui penglihatan, penciuman, pendengaran, peraba atau pengecap.”
In this study, the observation was conducted to get the data on how well the CALL method could achieve the goal of the study. In other words, it was conducted to get the data whether the lesson plan of CALL method had been implemented successfully or not in the classroom. In this stage, the teacher and his collaborator observed whether the students actively involved or not during the teaching learning process, whether CALL method could improvement the students’ listening skill.
a. Criteria of success
Criteria means standard by which someone or something was judged. In conducting research, criteria decision was important to know whether the action was successful or not. The criteria or the standard was determined by the researcher and the collaborator.
In this study, it was determined that the criteria of successful lesson were:
1) The students were actively involved during the teaching and learning process.
2) The analytic test could reach to 80 % of mark percentage.
3) 75 % of the students (26 students) were able to increase their listening skill by achieving good qualification in their listening performance, it means they achieved mark more than or equal to 3.00 in the observing checklist.


b. Kinds and Source of Data
Based on the criteria of success established above, the researcher described the data as follows;
1). The first data from the first criteria of success appeared as the students did CALL method in the class.
2). The second data from the second and third criteria of success appeared as the students’ progress in listening skill
Furthermore, to get the data that referring to the first criteria of success when the students implemented CALL method in the listening classroom, the researcher got the data from the field notes. Here, the data were in the form of qualitative data. Meanwhile, to get the data that referring to the second and third criteria of success, the researcher and collaborator got the data from analytic test and observation checklist. Here, the data were in the form of quantitative data. From the analytic test and observation checklist, the research and the collaborator could reveal the students’ listening progress as the result of the implementation of the CALL method in their listening. The observation checklist was used guideline when the teacher and collaborator assessed the students’ listening performance. The observation checklist could be seen in the following table 3.2.





















c. Instruments and Technique of Data Collection
Before conducting the research, the researcher prepared the instruments. The instruments used in this study were analytic tests, observation checklists, field notes.
1). Field notes were used by the teacher and collaborator to make notes related to the data which could be covered in the observation checklists. It included the data ranged from the planning implementing and evaluation.
2). The analytic tests were used to uncover the students’ listening achievement after the implementation of the action. In the tests, the students were answered the question by using the text which have listened.
3). Observation checklists were used the researcher and collaborator to know improvement students’ listening skill in the retell of the story, especially in the element of pronunciation, comprehensibility, vocabulary, and confidence.

5. Reflecting of Action
There were three major criteria of success of this study. The data or the information derived from the data analysis was then compared with those criteria. If it was found that the results had matched with criteria of success, the action would be stopped. However, if it was not found, there would be another action in another cycle done for the increase of the result by revising the plan.

E. Technique of Data Analysis
Data analysis in a process by which data simplified into a form can be interpreted easily. Data analysis is used in the study is interactive analysis and simply statistics.
First, interactive analysis has three components, data reduction, data presentation, and verification or conclusion. The activities of collecting the data are done in the form of interactive. The process of interactive analysis can be shown as the following figure:







Figure 3.2. Process of interactive analysis (Miles and A. Michael: 1994)
Those explore each of the themes in more depth as follow:

1. Data Reduction
Data reduction refers to the process of selecting, focusing, simplifying, abstracting, and transforming the data that appear in written-up field notes or transcriptions. As we see it, data reduction occurs continuously throughout the life of any qualitatively oriented project. Even before the data are actually collected, anticipatory data reduction is occurring as the researcher decides (often without full awareness) which conceptual framework, which cases, which research questions, and which data collection approaches to choose. As data collection proceeds, further episodes of data reduction occur (writing summaries, coding, teasing out themes, making clusters, making partitions, writing memos). The reduction/transforming process continues after fieldwork, until a final report is completed.
Data reduction is not something separate from analysis. It is part of analysis. The researcher’s decisions-which data chunks to code and which to pull out, which patterns best summarize a number of chunks, which patterns best summarize a number of chunks, which evolving story to tell – are all analytic choices. Data reduction is a form of analysis that sharpens, sorts, focuses, discards, and organizes data in such a way that “final” conclusions can be drawn and verified. As Tesch (1990), points out, it also can be seen as “data condensation.”



2. Data Display
The second major flow of analysis activity is data display. Generically, a display is an organized, compressed assembly of information that permits conclusion drawing and action. In daily life, displays vary from gasoline gauges to newspapers to computer screens to factor analysis printouts. Looking at displays helps us to understand what is happening and to do something- either analyze further and take action-based on that understanding.
In the course of work, it has become convinced that better displays are a major avenue to valid analysis. The displays discussed include many types of matrices, graphs, charts, and networks. All are designed to assemble organized information into an immediately accessible, compact form so that the analyst can see what is happening and either draw justified conclusions or move on to the next step of analysis the display suggests may be useful.

3. Conclusion drawing/Verification
The third stream of analysis activity is conclusion drawing and verification. From the start of data collection, this analysis beginning to decide what things mean-is noting regularities, patterns, explanations, possible configurations, causal flows, and propositions. The competent researcher holds these conclusions lightly, maintaining openness and skepticism, but the conclusions are still there, inchoate and vague at first, then increasingly explicit and grounded, to use the classic term of Glaser and Strauss. “Final” conclusions may not appear until data collection is over, depending on the size of the corpus of field notes; the sophistication of the researcher; and the demands of the funding agency, but they often have been prefigured from the beginning, even when a researcher claims to have been proceeding “inductively’.
Conclusion drawing, in our view, is only half of a Gemini configuration. Conclusions are also verified as the analyst proceeds. Verification may be as brief as a fleeting second thought crossing the analyst’s mind during writing, with a short excursion back to the field notes, or it may be thorough and elaborate, with lengthy argumentation and review among colleagues to develop “intersubjective consensus,” or with extensive efforts to replicate a finding in another data set. The meanings emerging from the data have to be tested for their plausibility, their sturdiness, their “confirmability”-that is, their validity. Otherwise we are left with interesting stories about what happened, of unknown truth and utility.

All the data gathered must be organized in such way so that interactive analysis process can run well. Data organization is done through classifying and arranging the data description gathered from the study’s activities physically into group, folder, or card in order to make it easy to use.
Data reduction and presentation must be arranged immediately at the time of the writer has got the data of each unit. As the collecting data is over, the writer starts the process of verification based overall things stated in data reduction and presentation.
Second, simply statistics used to know the result of teaching and learning process by accounted percentage the sum of total score from the analytic score and observation checklist. They are;
a. Analytic test
Notes: % = Percentage of Mean
= sum of mark
= Number of students
b. Total Score of Listening
Notes: = Mean
= Total score
N = sum elements of language

c. Listening Performance Qualification

Notes:
r = Percentage Listening performance qualification
a = sum of good qualification
b = Number of students

F. Development of Data Validity
To develop and guarantee the data validity, the study employs the techniques of data validity as the following:
1. Data Triangulation
This triangulation technique is often be called by resource triangulation. The writer should employ various kinds of resources. It means that the study may not be satisfied with the single resources. The writer should find out other resources to strengthen the former collected data. The writer can find the resources from different kind of sources.
2. Methodology Triangulation
The writer can collected the same kind of data but she should apply the different methods. It will make the data more reliable. The writer will collect participant as observation and review the document it is reliability.
3. Informants Review
This technique is also useful to develop the validity of the data and is often used by qualitative writer. Although the writer have got the data but the data should be consulted to the informants




G. Phases of Research
1. Pre-Research
The research arranged some activities before researching, those are:
• Arranged the design of research, they were background of study and problem statements
• Chosen the field of study
• Dealt the permission
• Knew and estimated the field of study
• Chosen the informant
• Arranged the equipment of study
2. Research
In this phase, the researcher understood as detail as the whole activities which correlated the problem statements of research.
3. Analysis the Data
The researcher analyzed the data which have conducted from the collected data, such as: observation, interview, and documentation.
4. Research in the Field
In this phase the researcher pours the result to the report that would be understood and followed by readers.



CHAPTER IV
RESEARCH RESULT

This chapter presents two points. First, presents data presentation and finding of increasing students’ proficiency in listening through CALL method. Second, discussion of the data presentation and finding.

A. Data Presentation and Finding
1. Implementation of Action in the First Cycle
The first cycle was conducted on November 16th 2009. Here included three steps, they were pre-listening, whilst-listening, and post-listening. Those were described bellow.
a. Pre-Listening
The teacher started the activity by greeting the students and asking who absent in this meeting. Then, the teacher described the instructional objective that would be achieved. After that, the teacher told the class that the main activity in the pre-listening stage would be described the narrative text. In doing this activity at the very beginning, the teacher asked meaning of the narrative text to the class. The student answered interchangeable. Then, the teacher described narrative text. Students gave attention to the teacher seriously, although some students looked out haven’t ready to received the lesson.
b. Whilst-Listening
The teacher told the class that the main activity in this stage is listening narrative text. This text has title “Snail and Mouse Deer”. The teacher told students that could be wrote the difficult words during listening. The teacher said again that after listening activity, they will achieved analytic test about the text and retell this story in a pair. The teacher added that when you give a retell, your performance would be evaluated and assessed.
Next, when all students knew what they had do, the teacher played the CD. All students listen to the text carefully. The teacher gave the time for listening in 20 minutes. While students were listening seriously, the teacher monitored from his chair. During this activity, some students wrote the difficult word and phases of the story. But, some others again who sit in the back looked busy with their hand phone and spoke with their friends in a desk.
After finished listening, the teacher distributed the copies of analytic test to class. The teacher gave the time 15 minutes to answer these questions. During this activity, some students asked vocabularies to the teacher and his/her friends. Then, students finished answer their questions; the teacher assigned to retell that story and collected their papers. A pair of students was appointed to come to the front of the class, retell this story in about 20 minutes and then was assessed by teacher and collaborator. Sometime, they didn’t give pronunciation correctly. Further, the teacher observed that most of the students got difficulties in comprehension to the text. These conditions contributed to the negative impact toward the students’ language elements performance particularly in the element of confidence where they were often nervous and overact. On the other hands, those conditions also contributed to improvement listening skill.

c. Post-Listening
The teacher told that the main activity in this stage was providing feedback toward the students’ performance. The teacher said that the comments were as the feedback to help students in preparing the next listening comprehension.

d. Reflection in the First Cycle
To see whether the action was successful or not, the research as the teacher and the collaborator who observed the process of the teaching and learning process in the classroom made reflection. The reflection was focused on the analysis of the teaching and learning process and the students’ listening results.
Based on the analysis data of the teaching and learning process during in this meeting, it was found out that:
1) Pre-speaking stage, some students didn’t know about the material which has described the teacher. But, they were shy to asked that to the teacher. In addition, it could be influenced at the whilst-listening stage.
2) Whilst-listening stage
a. Some students were not actively involved during listening. In this case, they did not actively listening. Some students appeared busy with their hand phone and spoke with their friends in a desk. Therefore, it also contributed negatively at the pronunciation them and their confidence.
b. They got difficulties to use the appropriate vocabulary in retell the story. It caused, they didn’t write the difficult vocabularies from the text that have listened.
c. At the retell of the story, one of them was passive because they were hanging onto their pairs. Her/his pairs have high achiever than their selves.
Based from the analysis data of the students’ listening performance, it also could be seen from the result of analytic test and observation checklist. At the analytic test were found 71.49% at the pre-test and 77.14% at this cycle. Meanwhile, on the observation checklist appeared that in the pre-test known just 8 students who could achieve the good qualification and at the cycle could be found 17 students.
Those data of the teaching and learning process and the students’ listening in the first cycle, the implementation of CALL Method did not yet give satisfactory results on the increasing of students’ comprehension in listening. Therefore, the implementation of the action plan still needed to be increasing so that it could achieve the criteria of this research.
The evidence that the treatment conducted in this research has not yet achieved the criteria of success was presented before. First, the students were not yet fully active in the teaching and learning process as seen on the observation checklist and field note that some activities were not implemented well. Second, the students were not able yet to increase the listening skill by answering analytic test. Therefore, this action was continued to the second cycle.

e. Revision of the Previous Action
Some revision and adjustment on the lesson plan and on the way of the implementation of the strategy were made since the action in the first cycle did not yet give a satisfactory result. Nevertheless, the planning of the action in the second cycle was not much different from that in the first cycle.
The preparation of the second cycle was done in the matters of the activities and the strategy implemented of CALL method.
1). The teacher and collaborator improved the strategy of the examining activity. In this stage, the teacher gave the analytic test at the preparation to listening comprehension.
2). The teacher rearranged the students’ pairs. In this case, the teacher positioned the higher achiever with lower achiever in a pair. It was intended in order the students could get more ideas about the topic of the story were listened and sharing their experience.
3). The teacher played the CD in twice, it could help students comprehend to the text carefully, especially in the pronunciation and vocabulary.
4). The lesson plan was also prepared.

2. Implementation of Action in the Second Cycle
The implementation of action in the second cycle, the researcher acted as a teacher who implemented the CALL method while collaborator acted as the observer and assessor. The second cycle was conducted on November 23rd 2009. Here included three steps, they were pre-listening, whilst-listening, and post-listening. Those were described as follow:
a. Pre-listening
The teacher started the activity by greeting the students and asking who absent in this meeting. Then, the teacher described the instructional objective that would be achieved. After that, the teacher was brainstorming the material in the first meeting which was presented before. The students were answered with similar means. In doing this activity, the teacher clarified incorrect answers and described some items which must be known deeply by students.
b. Whilst-listening
The teacher told the class that the main activity in this stage is listening narrative text. This text has title “Crocodiles and Mouse Deer”. The teacher instructed the students to sit in a pairs. She mixed the higher achiever with lower achiever. After that, before listening to the text, the teacher distributed the copies of analytic assessment form. The teacher explored the reason why it distributed before listening activity, it would help students to listen the phases of story. Next, the teacher reminded the students that could be wrote the difficult words while listening. The teacher said again that after listening activity, they would be discussed some answers which have distributed before and retell this story in a pairs. The teacher added that when you give a retell, your performance would be evaluated and assessed.
Next, when all students knew what they had do, the teacher played the CD. All students listen to the text carefully. The teacher gave the time for listening in 25 minutes. The story will played in twice. While students were listening seriously, the teacher monitored around the class and to keep the students listen.
After finished listening, the teacher instructed to students discussed and sharing about the answer of analytic test and prepared to retell story in front of the class in a pairs. The teacher gave the time 15 minutes to answer these questions. During this activity, the teacher observed the students took part in field note. Then, students finished answer their questions, the teacher assigned to retell that story while collected their analytic form to the teacher. A pair of students was appointed to come to the front of the class, retell this story in about 10 minutes and then was assessed by teacher and collaborator. None of the students asked to the neighbor about the answer or difficult vocabularies, they were discussed with her/his pairs and looked at the dictionary the words. Since in the retell the story, the students brave to told widely. Their pronunciation and vocabulary were good qualification. In addition, they also could comprehend the text. Their language performances were increased. In this meeting, most of the students achieved good performance.
c. Post-listening
Third stage was post-listening. In this stage, the students were provided with comments or feedback toward the students’ performance. The teacher instructed to check, study and comprehend the result of the comments after the class.

d. Reflection in the second cycle
To see whether the action was successful or not, the researcher as the teacher and collaborator who observed the process of teaching and learning in the classroom made reflection. The reflection was focused on the analysis of the teaching and learning process and the students’ listening results.
Based on the analysis data of the teaching and learning process during the meeting, it was found out that;
1). In the pre-listening stage, students could examine the narrative text better than the last meeting. It was found out that they could answer the question in brainstorming.
2). In whilst-listening stage, since the students had done the material in the pre-listening stage, the students’ performance during whilst-listening stage were much better than they were in the first cycle. It could be seen from the classroom activity that the students ready to retell the story and then could pour their ideas briefly and feel responsible for their own listening. In other words, they were active to increasing their listening skill. In addition, they could retell appropriately so that the teacher could comprehend these phases better than last meeting.
3). In the post-listening stage, since the teacher gave her optimum guidance to the students who still got problem in their listening performance in observation and feedback, the number of students who could achieve good qualification in four language elements increased.
Based on the analysis data of the students’ listening performance during that meeting, it was found out that;
 The result of the students’ listening in cycle 2 showed a good qualification. The errors in pronunciation and vocabulary also could be minimized. We could see 26 (74,29%) students were successful achieved good qualification.
 In this meeting, we could see the students’ average marks from analytic test showed 83 % students achieved. It was suitable with criteria of success.
From the analysis of the teaching and learning process and the students’ listening in the second cycle, the implementation of CALL method gave satisfactory results in increasing of students’ proficiency in listening by achieving the criteria of success of this research. Therefore, this action was stopped.
B. Discussion
1. The Teaching and Learning of Listening through CALL Method in the Pre-Listening Stage
As presented in the previous part, it was found out that the students could understood what the mean of narrative text. They answered the question from the teacher briefly. The strategy was used at the first cycle were guided questions. The strategy would be interested the students to understand the material more a way. Then, the students could gave attention to the teacher who presented this material. It could be help students in listening activity.
Further, at the second cycle the teacher used brainstorming strategy to remembering the material last meeting. Brainstorming invites the learners to organize existing knowledge in their own mind. Further, she also carried out some checking while the students doing these activities.

2. The Teaching and Learning of Listening through CALL Method in the Whilst-Listening Stage
Refer to the previous part that since the students had done brainstorming and guided activity. Those influence their listening activity, in the first cycle looked that the some students have a problem and difficulties to listen the phases of the story. But, they could be listened deeply at the second cycle.
The teacher used work in pairs’ strategy to discussing the questions in the analytic test and at the retell the story. This strategy may be provides opportunities for students in doing face-to-face give and take interaction. Further, in a pair, the students were asked to discuss anything related to the topic in order to dig and activated their prior knowledge and ideas. As a result, they could show confidence in the retell of this story.
3. The Teaching and Learning of Listening through CALL Method in the Post-Listening Stage
As presented in the previous part, in the first cycle, the teacher provided the students with feedback as soon as after they listened and had been observed. In the study, as the feedback, the teacher gave annotated comments to all students. In addition, the teacher annotated his comments with suggestions for solution. It was intended in order the students could prepare for the next listening comprehension.
The finding of this study showed that the strategy in CALL method applied by the teacher in the second cycle gave positive results on the students’ performance since the teacher gave her optimum guidance to the students who still got problem in their listening comprehension. It was found out that the students could increasing their listening skill used CALL method.
4. The Increasing of the Students’ Listening Skill
The increasing of students’ listening skill was affected by the successful of the teaching and learning process of listening. This could be seen from the results of this study. Before the method was implemented, the students had got difficulties in listening, which influenced the result of their listening. When they performed their listening, mostly didn’t comprehend the phases of story and lacked confidence in the retell story. It also contained errors in pronunciation and vocabulary.
The evidence that the students’ listening skill had shown an increasing could be seen from the total mark percentage of each cycle as follow:




Table 4.1. Total Mark Percentage
Nu. Analytic test Observation checklist
Pre-Test 71.49% 22.86%
Cycle 1 77.14% 48.57 %
Cycle 2 82% 74.29 %

Before the action, the average mark of the students’ listening was 71.49% (9 students) could be reach mark of minimal completeness criteria in the analytic test. This mark increased and it became 77.14% in the first cycle and it not yet reach the criteria of success. It continued to the second cycle. In the second cycle, the average mark of students’ listening was 82%. There were successful in achieving criteria of success with mark 75- 95 of minimal completeness criteria (Kriteria Ketuntasan Minimal) mark.
In the observation checklist only 22.86% (8 students) who achieved good qualification of listening in pre-test. But, it became 48.57% in the first cycle. Here, only 17 students out of 35 achieved the mark greater than or equal to 3.00 (good qualification). Meanwhile, in the second cycle, the average mark of the students listening was 3.4. There were 74.29 % of students (26 out of 35 students) who were successful in achieving criteria of success with mark 3.00.
The result of the research also showed in this figure, it could be seen below:
Figure 4.1. The Improvement of Students’ Mark in Listening













CHAPTER IV
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

This chapter is devoted to draw some conclusion and suggestions on the basis of the research findings and discussion.

A. Conclusion
Using CALL method had made the listening skill much better. In order to be successful, several steps in teaching learning activities and improvement of listening skill should be followed.
1. Several steps in teaching learning activities using CALL method
a. Describing the material related to the text would be listened. Teacher giving question about this material to interested the students in the teaching and learning process. Teacher also used brainstorming strategy in this stage.
b. Students were listened the narrative text carefully on the OHP and the CD playing in twice. It would be help students to listen well. They could be written the difficult words to make ease comprehend the phases of the text.
c. The teacher distributed copies of analytic test form to the class.
d. The teacher instructed the students to sit in a pair. In this step, the pair consisted of higher achiever and lower achiever. The students in each group discuss and share their answers together related to the text which have been listened.
e. Teacher assigned the students to retell the phases of that story in front of the class in a pair. In this stage, the teacher tended to be as a facilitator, as a observer and as an assessor who observed and assessed the students’ listening performance.
f. The teacher provided a feedback toward each student’s performance. In this case, the teacher instructed to check, study and comprehend the result of the comments after the teaching and listening process finished.
2. The improvement of listening skill
The improvement of students’ listening skill was affected by the successful of the teaching and learning process of listening. This could be seen from the results of this study.
The improvement at the analytic test showed from the 77.14% (26 students) in the first cycle changed to be 82 % (29 students) in the second cycle, on the other hands the observation checklist showed improved too. In the first cycle reach up to 48.57% (17 students) and improving in the second cycle could be reached 74.29% (26 students).
The finding of this study showed that the strategy in CALL method applied by the teacher in the second cycle gave positive results on the students’ performance since the teacher gave her optimum guidance to the students who still got problem in their listening comprehension. It was found out that the students could improvement their listening skill used CALL method.

B. Suggestion
Based on the findings, some suggestions are provided for the English teachers and future researchers.
1. Due the fact the use of CALL method can increasing the students’ listening skill, it is recommended that the listening teachers apply the CALL method in the teaching of listening tenth grade. To develop teacher’s strategy in applying CALL method, it is suggested that teachers develop it through discussion in the teachers’ meeting workshops, trainings, or to write articles about listening which uses CALL method in the students’ books, or journals.
2. The future researcher is suggested to conduct a similar study by using CALL method with different setting and subjects for the increasing of the teaching English listening.







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Appendix 5

Analytic Test

Date/meeting/cycle: November 4th 2009/ Pre-test/-

Nu. Questions Answers
1 Who are the figures in this story? The figures are Snail and Mouse Deer
2 Where is the story likely happen? In the river
3 Mention the difficult word in this story depend yourselves? Shrewd : pintar/cerdas
Humiliate : menghina
Blindfolded : menutup mata
Bewildered : membingungkan
Downstream : hilir
4 Retell this story with your pairs? Similar with the text story












Analytic Test

Date/meeting/cycle: November 16th 2009 / 1/1

Nu. Questions Answers
1 Who are the figures in this story? The figures are Snail and Mouse Deer
2 Where are the story likely happen? In the river
3 Mention the difficult word in this story depend yourselves? Shrewd : pintar/cerdas
Humiliate : menghina
Blindfolded : menutup mata
Bewildered : membingungkan
Downstream : hilir
4 Classify the thinking verbs, feeling verbs and verbs of senses included that story? Thinking verbs : find, tell, know, etc.
Feeling verbs : clear, patient, curious, etc.
Verbs of senses : look, seem, listin, etc.
5 Retell this story with your pairs? Similar with the text story









Analytic Test

Date/meeting/cycle: November 23rd 2009/1/2

Nu. Questions Answers
1 Who are the figures in this story? The figures are Crocodiles and Mouse Deer
2 Classify this story into generic structure? Orientation: the Mouse Deer Continued to run into the jungle. The Mouse Deer was thinking of how to get to the other side of the river, not far from where he was, a group of crocodiles were gathering.
Complication: The crocodile dived to where the mouse deer was standing. As soon as they got close to him, the crocodile are going to kill and eat me.
Resolution: The mouse deer stood still. But only for a while. He could control himself again. He already found good idea to deal with the crocodiles. The mouse deer had gone far into the jungle. He could always deceive other animals. He was witty, clever, intelligent and sometimes cunning, too.

3 Mention the difficult words in this story depend yourselves? Surrender : menyerahkan/melepaskan


Fatten : menggemukkan
Stretching : meregangkan
Cunning : kelicikan/kecerdikan
4 Classify the thinking verbs, feeling verbs, and verbs of senses from this story? Thinking verbs : continued, learn, thinking

Feeling verbs : believe, amazed etc

Verbs of sense : smell, seem, listen etc
5 Retell this story with your pairs? Similar with the text story


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Appendix 3

LESSON PLAN

Lesson : English
Class/Semester : X.4 / I (First)
School : SMAN 1 Babadan
Time : 2x45 minutes
Meeting/Cycle : 1/1

Standard Competence : Listening
2. Understanding the significance short functional text and simply monolog text sush as :recount, narrative, dan procedure texts in the habitually action.
Basic Competence : 2.2 Responding the significance simply monolog text using oral language exactly, fluency, and achieved in the habitually action of the recount, narrative, dan procedure texts.
Indicators : 2.2.1. Identifiy the figures from the narrative text.
2.2.2. Identifiy orientation of the story
2.2.3 Identifiy thinking verbs, feeling verbs, dan verbs of senses

I. Specific Instructional Objectives
By the end of the session, the students are mainly expected to be able to:
1. Identifiy the figures from this text
2. Identifiy orientation of the story
3. Identifiy thinking verbs, feeling verbs, dan verbs of senses

II. Material
1. Narrative Text
2. Thinking verbs, feeling verbs, dan verbs of senses

IV. Procedure of Implementation
A. Pre-Listening Activities
Time : 25 minutes
Nu. Activities Strategies Times Source/ Material / Instrument
1 Greeting the students, praying, and call roll Speech
5 minutes Attendance sheet
Ballpoint Pan
2 Describing the instructional objective that would be achieved. 5 minutes Lesson Plan/Syllabus
3 Describing the narrative text 15 minutes Text book “Look a Head Class X”

B. Whilst-Listening Activities
Time : 55 minutes
Nu. Activities Strategies Times Source/ Material / Instrument
1


Assigning the students to prepared listening and the teacher telling students that could be wrote the difficult words during listening. Speech
5 minutes Note book
Ballpoint Pan
2 Listening to the text CALL
20 minutes CD ”The adventure of Mouse Deer”’
3 The teacher distributing the copies of analytic test 5 minutes Copies of paper
4 Discussing in a pair 15 minutes Note book
Ballpoint Pan
5 Retell the story 20
minutes



C. Post-Listening Activities
Time :10 minutes
Nu. Activities Strategies Times Source/ Material / Instrument
1 Providing feedback toward the students’ performance Speech
7 minutes Note book
Whiteboard
Board marker
2 Praying and greeting the class 3 minutes

V. Instructional Media
The researcher also prepared teaching media that were related to the topic areas, such as:
• Text book “Look a Head Class X” , M. Sudarwati and Eudia Grace, Erlangga, 2006
• CD “ The Adventure of Mouse Deer”, Multi Media Metropolitan
• OHP, Laptop, Loud Speaker

VI. Procedure of Assessment
The researcher employed two kinds of assessment: they were process and product assessment.
1. The process assessment focused on the students’ progress in implementing CALL method. In assessing the students’ progress during the listening progress, the researcher used observation checklist and field note.
2. Product assessment focused on assessing the final product. That was listening product. Here, the researcher and collaborator applied analytic test for scoring students’ final product.





VII. Apendixes
- Hand out of narrative text
- Instruments of assessment (observation checklist & analytic test)


Ponorogo, November 16th 2009
Collaborator The Teacher

Diana Finita, S.Pd Isna Maratus Sholikhah
NIP.197006192007012015 NIM. 249062116





















Appendix 4

LESSON PLAN

Lesson : English
Class/Semester : X.4 / I (First)
School : SMAN 1 Babadan
Time : 2x45 minutes
Meeting/Cycle : 1/2

Standard Competence : Listening
2. Understanding the significance short functional text and simply monolog text sush as :recount, narrative, dan procedure texts in the habitually action.
Basic Competence : 2.2 Responding the significance simply monolog text using oral language exactly, fluency, and achieved in the habitually action of the recount, narrative, dan procedure texts.
Indicators : 2.2.1. Identifiy the figures from the narrative text.
2.2.2. Identifiy orientation of the story
2.2.3.Identify the message in the re-orientation (conclusion) paragraph
2.2.4. Identifiy thinking verbs, feeling verbs, dan verbs of senses

I. Specific Instructional Objectives
By the end of the session, the students are mainly expected to be able to:
1. Identifiy the figures from the narrative text
2. Identifiy orientation of the story
3. Identify the message in the re-orientation (conclusion) paragraph
4. Identifiy thinking verbs, feeling verbs, dan verbs of senses


II. Material
1. Narrative Text
2. Thinking verbs, feeling verbs, dan verbs of senses

IV. Procedure of Implementation
A. Pre-Listening Activities
Time : 25 minutes
Nu. Activities Strategies Times Source/ Material / Instrument
1 Greeting the students, praying, and call roll Speech
5 minutes Attendance sheet
Ballpoint Pan
2 Describing the instructional objective that would be achieved. 5 minutes Lesson Plan/Syllabus
3 Brainstorming the last material or narrative text 15 minutes Text book “Look a Head Class X”
Whiteboard
Board marker
4 Describing some important topic in the narrative text

B. Whilst-Listening Activities
Time : 55 minutes
Nu. Activities Strategies Times Source/ Material / Instrument
1


Assigning the students to prepared listening and the teacher telling students that could be wrote the difficult words during listening. Speech
5 minutes Note book
Ballpoint Pan
2 The teacher distributing the copies of analytic test CALL
5 minutes Copies of paper
3 Listening to the text 25 minutes CD ”The adventure of Mouse Deer”’
4 Discussing in a pair 15 minutes Note book
Ballpoint Pan
5 Retell the story 15
minutes

C. Post-Listening Activities
Time :10 minutes
Nu. Activities Strategies Times Source/ Material / Instrument
1 Providing feedback toward the students’ performance Speech
7 minutes Note book
Whiteboard
Board marker
2 Praying and greeting the class 3 minutes

V. Instructional Media
The researcher also prepared teaching media that were related to the topic areas, such as:
• Text book “Look a Head Class X” , M. Sudarwati and Eudia Grace, Erlangga, 2006
• CD “ The Adventure of Mouse Deer”, Multi Media Metropolitan
• OHP, Laptop, Loud Speaker

VI. Procedure of Assessment
The researcher employed two kinds of assessment: they were process and product assessment.
1. The process assessment focused on the students’ progress in implementing CALL method. In assessing the students’ progress during the listening progress, the researcher used observation checklist and field note.
2. Product assessment focused on assessing the final product. That was listening product. Here, the researcher and collaborator applied analytic test for scoring students’ final product.

VII. Apendixes
- Hand out of narrative text
- Instruments of assessment (observation checklist & analytic test)


Ponorogo, November 23rd 2009
Collaborator The Teacher

Diana Finita, S.Pd Isna Maratus Sholikhah
NIP.197006192007012015 NIM. 249062116

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