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Senin, 13 Juli 2009

The Role of The Domain

A. The Role of The Domain
The Function of The Domain
1. To complete the task of defining a field. A means for identifying and organizing the relationships emerging from theory and practice should be develop.
- Taxonomies or classifications are often used to simplify these relationship (carrier and sales. 1987; Knezek, Rachlin and Scannel, 1988; Kozma and Bangert- Downs 1987)
- According to Benjamin Bloom a taxonomy: may not have arbitrary elements, must correspond to some real phenomena represented by the terms, must be validated through consistency with the theoretical views of the field.
- An up to date taxonomic structure is essential to the future development of instructional technology and in addition the field needs a common conceptual framework and agreement or terminology.
- The rapidity of technology change and modification necessitates the transfer of what is known from one technology to another, and the research needs this transferability.
- By identifying taxonomic areas, academics and practitioners can work to resolve research issues, and practitioners can work with the orists to identify where theories are weak in supporting and predicting real world instructional technological applications.
- Consequently the validation of theory and practice can be impeded.
2. Fleisman and Quaintance (1984) summarized several potential benefits of developing a taxonomy of human performance:
- to aid in conducting literature reviews
- to create the capacity to generate new tasks
- to expose gaps in knowledge by delineating categories and subcategories of knowledge, exposing holes in research, and promoting theoretical discussion or evaluation
- to assist in theory development by evaluating how successful theory organized the observational data generated by research within the field of instructional technology
3. The 1977 definition of the field (AECT, 1977) proposed that instructional management functions operated on instructional systems components
4. Ronald L. Jacobs (1988) also proposed a domain of human performance technology that included both theory and practice and identified the functions practitioners fulfill.
- in Jacob proposed domain there are three functions; management functions, performance systems development functions and human performance system components which are the conceptual bases for performing the other function.
- Each function has a purpose and components: the subcomponents of management are administrative and personnel, development are the steps in the development process, and subcomponent of human performance systems are concepts about organization, motivation, behavior, performance and feedback.
B. The Relationships Among Domains
1. The Domains of Instructional Technology
- the domains of the instructional technology, summarizes the major areas in the knowledge base for each domain.
- While researcher can concentrate on one domain, practitioners must often fulfill functions in several or all domains
- Although they may focus oil one domain or area in the domain, researchers draw on theory and practice from other domains
- The relationship between the domains is synergistic
2. The Relationship between Domains of the field
- the each domain contributes to the other domains and to research and theory that is shared by the domains.
- the complementary nature of relationship between domains are from Theory and Practice; Design, Development, Utilization, Management, Evaluation

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