THE IMPLEMENTATION OF CALL (COMPUTER-ASSISTED LEARNING LANGUAGE) METHOD TO IMPROVE LISTENING SKILL IN TEACHING ENGLISH LANGUAGE CLASS X.4 OF SMA NEGERI 1 BABADAN IN THE SCHOOLING YEAR OF 2009/2010
Submitted for The Seminar of The Thesis Writing Assignment at The Class TI.B in The Program Study of English Education.
ISNA MARATUS SHOLIKHAH
NIM: 249 062 116
Mr. DOLAR YOWONO
PROGRAM STUDY OF ENGLISH EDUCATION
THE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
STATE ISLAMIC HIGH SCHOOL
IDENTIFIED THE RESEARCH TOPIC OF TEACHING LEARNING PROCESS USING CLASSROOM ACTION RESEARCH (CAR)
I. KNOWING THE PROBLEMS
a. According on the interview with English teachers of SMAN 1 Babadan named Mrs. Nurhadi Hanury. Exactly in Saturday, October 17, 2009 et 9 o’clock. He said that 75 % students of class X.4 SMAN 1 Babadan lack in listening skill.
b. The observation have done at October 23, 2009. The result indicated the pupils of class x.4 needs motivation from other places.
II. IDENTIFIED THE PROBLEMS
a. Lack on the listening skill.
b. Lack of the motivation and spirit to learn.
III. LIMITED THE PROBLEMS
Lack on the listening skill in learning English.
IV. AN ANALYSED THE PROBLEMS WITH SOME FACTORS THERE WAS CAUSED CORE PROBLEMS
a. The used methods where time out date and monotonous.
b. Passive teacher at the class.
c. Rarely accepted listening subject in the class.
d. Uncompleted used of media to teaching learning process.
V. HYPOTHESIS OF THE PROBLEMS
a. Using a interested methods to teaching listening, such as CALL (Computer-Assisted Learning Language).
b. To be good teachers who’s have creativity and energetic.
c. Employing educative and modern media.
VI. DETERMINED ONE OF HYPOTHESIS
Using a interested methods to teaching listening, such as CALL (Computer-Assisted Learning Language).
VII. GET OF THE MAIN TOPIC TO THE RESEARCH
The Implementation Of Call (Computer-Assisted Learning Language) Method To Improve Listening Skill in Teaching English Language Class X.4 of SMA Negeri 1 Babadan In The Schooling Year of 2009/2010
A. Background of Study
English language is an international languages, it is used to communicate among people in the different country. That is becomes very important in education aspect. Because English language includes to several language lessons in Indonesia. There are have several functions of foreign language; a. international communication and study of language, b. language as a system of communication, c. the most complex of man’s tool, d. each language is structurally different system. (lado, 1961:1)
For Indonesian students, English is a foreign language. It is an important subject taught at every level of education. To provide the students with English learning as whole, the teacher has to present all language skills that are identified as listening, speaking, reading and writing. All of the language skills must be presented to achieve the whole understanding of English.
As one kind of language skills is listening, it can defined as “…ability to understand and interpret spoken English ” (Michael A. Pyle end Mary Ellen M., 1991:13). Listening includes to be one skill where is important rather than other skills. David Argues that “ before coming too another skills, listening and speaking are natural skills. That everyone is able to achieve”. From this statement, we know that listening skill is must be learned before another skills. Other statement stated, by Furqarul end A.Caerar, (1996: 79-80);
“ menyimak merupakan ketrampilan yang paling penting diantara ketrampilan lainnya. Melalui aktivitas ini, siswa bisa memperoleh kosa-kata dan gramatikal, disamping tentunya pengucapan yang baik”.
Further, students must be received listening skill well to help them defined English language and understood who’s speaker said. Especially in their own English subject. Like this statement “Good listeners are good catchers because they give their speakers a target and then move that target to capture the information that is being sent” (http//www.listening-skills.html.com).
For this case, teacher must provide the students with appropriate teaching methods. A teaching method is a prescribed set of ways applied to convey knowledge and competence to the students. Therefore, applying appropriate teaching methods plays an important role in the teaching learning process, including in the teaching of listening.
One of the teaching methods applied in the teaching of listening is CALL (Computer-Assisted Learning Language). The method recommended oh this argues, “ In CALL programs, listening is combined with seeing, just like in the real world. Students also control the pace and the path of the interaction. Interaction is in the foreground but many CALL programs also provide links to explanations simultaneously.” And it explained in other argues that theoretical basis for CALL instruction design computers have become so widespread in schools and homes and their uses have expanded so dramatically that the majority of language teachers now think about the implications. Technology can bring about changes in the teaching methodologies of foreign language beyond simply automating full in the gap exercises. (http://www.camsoftparthers.com). Thus, CALL is a method applied in elaboration strategy. It is suitably applied in the teaching of listening. It is very useful for students to remember what they learned, because not only listening but also seeing the materials subject.
Since CALL method is effective in helping the students to comprehend materials and many advantages we will get it, so, it is necessary to observe CALL method in teaching listening. The title of study taken is The Implementation Of Call (Computer-Assisted Learning Language) Method To Improve Listening Skill in Teaching English Language Class X.4 of SMA Negeri 1 Babadan In The Schooling Year of 2009/2010.
B. Statement Of The Problem
In this research the researcher taken the statement of the problem is how to the implementation of CALL (Computer-Assisted Learning Language) method to improve listening skill in teaching English language class x.4 of SMA Negeri 1 Babadan in the schooling year of 2009/2010?
RIVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
A. The Teaching English Language
Teaching is one of educative activities. In educational system, teaching plays an important role in which an interaction between a teacher and student occurs. There is an assumption that teaching is a process of transforming knowledge to students. In the teaching process, a teacher stands in front of the class to present a certain subject matter and students are required to sit and listen it. Having completed the subject matter, the teacher provides the students with a set of academic tasks. In the end of the class, the teacher evaluates the academics tasks. In short, teaching is considered as a delivery system in which the students are required to understand the subject matter without knowing the process. Nana Sudjana (1989:7) states, “ mengajar yaitu proses mengorganisasikan atau menata sejumlah sumber potensi secara baik dan benar sehingga terjadi proses belajar mengajar yang bersinergi pada anak didik.”
Whereas teaching English is “ the activity where the teacher is giving English lesson and the students respond it. Teaching is to show how to do something so that they will be able to do themselves” (Oxford, 1995: 1225). Adrian (1998:1) says:
“ Teach English is a teacher training course which develops practical skills in English as foreign language. It can be used; 1) on in service training course for teachers working at secondary level in school or language institute., 2) in pre-service training of secondary teachers, as practical component of a methodology course and as preparation for teaching practice., 3) as part of a refresher course in practical methodology for more experienced.”
In other statement which stated that “ Mengajarkan bahasa Inggris kepada anak-anak maupun orang dewasa memang gampamg-gampang susah. Banyak orang berpendapat bahwa memberikan materi pelajaran berbahasa Inggris sangatlah sulit karena merupakan bahasa asing yang mau tidak mau harus dilaksanakan sesuai tuntutan kurikulum yang berlaku dinegara kita.” (Ayu Rini,2005: 2). English language will learned until in the senior high school and sure this is needs teacher who have creativities to teach in the method and other thing will support to teach English well.
B. The Teaching Method
Teaching method is one component involved in the teaching learning process. Soetomo (1993:144) defines teaching method as “ …alat untuk mencapai tujuan pengajaran yang ingin dicapai ..” the same opinion is offered by Winarno Surahmad(2003:96), “ metode adalah cara yang didalam fungsinya merupakan alat untuk mencapai tujuan.” Furthermore, Brown (2000:171) defines teaching method as;
“A generalized, prescribed set of classroom specifications for accomplishing linguistic objectives. Methods tend to be primarily concerned with teacher and student roles and behaviors, and secondarily with such features as linguistic and subject matter objectives, sequencing, and materials. They are almost always thought of as being broadly to a variety of audiences in a variety of contexts.”
On the other words, the teacher has to take into account some factors to select an appropriate teaching method. The factors are students, educational objectives, teaching situation, teaching facility, and teacher’s characteristic and professionalism. Each of these factors is explained in the following.
The first factor concerns with students. According to H. Muhammad Ali (2005: 5), “ Setiap siswa mempunyai keragaman dalam hal kecakapan maupun kepribadian.” This idea is supported by edge (2001:9), “ All learners are different. No two individuals have the same knowledge, or skills, or expectations…Learners are also influenced by their age and by their educational, social, and cultural backgrounds…” Since are different, selecting in a teaching method must be suited to their characteristics; their social status, sex, intelligence, personality, age, grade, maturity, interests, needs, and experience. In short, student’ different biological, intellectual, and psychological aspects must be the focus of attention concerned with the selection of teaching method.
The second factor is educational objectives. Syaiful Bahri Djamarah and Aswaan Zain (2002:91) recommend, “ metode yang guru pilih harus sejalan dengan taraf kemampuan yang hendak diisi kedalam diri setiap anak didik. Artinya, metodelah yang harus tunduk kepada kehendak tujuan dan bukan sebaliknya.” On the other words, selecting a teaching method must fit the educational objectives. Different educational objectives determine what teaching method will be applied. For instance, the teaching grammer will not be suitable applied in teaching speaking. If the educational objective is to make certain responses automatically, the drill method will be most appropriate.
The third factor focuses on teaching situation. Syaiful Bahri Djamarah and Aswaan Zain (2002:91) recommend, “ situasi kegiatan belajar mengajar yang guru ciptakan tidak selamanya sama dari hari ke hari …Maka guru dalam hal ini tentu memilih metode mengajar yang sesuai dengan situasi yang diciptakan itu.” Thus, to conduct the teaching larning process, the teacher should vary the way she/he teaches. It has agoal of providing the students with different teaching situations. Once, the teacher presents the subject matter inside the classroom, but once she/he conducts the teaching learning process outside the classroom. However, the different teaching situations need different teaching methods.
The forth factor deals with teaching facility. Syaiful Bahri Djamarah and Aswaan Zain (2002:91) offer a viewpoint, “ fasilitas merupakan hal yang mempengaruhi pemilihan dan penentuan metode mengajar.” It can be stated that teaching facility influences on the selection of teaching method. Some schools have modern teaching facilities such as audio visual rooms, projectors, TV, radio, laboratory rooms, music rooms with pianos, or a well equipped library. A school with a well-equipped language laboratory may provide the students with good listening classroom, but a school with limited teaching methods must focus on available teaching facilities.
The fifth factor is teacher’s characteristic and professionalism. H. Muhammad Ali (2005:5) explain, ”setiap guru memiliki pola mengajar sendiri-sendiri. Pola mengajar ini tercermin dalam tingkah laku dalam melaksanakan pengajaran.” Edge (2001:11) states, “like learners, however, all teacher are different…” it can be stated that teachers have their own personalities and professionalisms. They have their own ways of doing things. Some may prefer certain teaching methods than others and apply them more often. Some prefer experiment method while others prefer lecture method. The different personalities and professionalism influence the selection of teaching method.
So, teaching method has an essential position in the teaching-learning process. Teaching method enables the teacher to transform the subject matter to the students easier. To achieve educational objectives, the teacher must know what appropriate teaching methods will be applied. Some factors, such as; education, objectives, student, teaching situation, teaching facility, and teacher’s characteristic and professionalism, must be involved in selecting appropriate teaching methods.
C. CALL (Computer-Assisted Learning Language)
1) Defenition of Computers
In addition, the computer with virtually instantaneous response to student input, its extensive capacity to store and manipulate information, and its unmatched ability to serve many individual students simultaneously is widely used in instruction.
Nasution (1994:110) introduce a viewpoint that “ komputer adalah hasil teknologi modern yang membuka kemungkinan-kemungkinan yang besar alat pendidikan”. The computers can be an object of instruction, as in courses on computer science and computer literacy. It also a tool that can be used during instruction to do complex calculations, data manipulations, and word processing.
Pada buku panduan Komputer 1, Informatika dan Teknk Komputer Wearnes Education Center menjelaskan bahwa “ komputer adalah perangkat alat elektronik yang mampu mengolah data untuk menyajikan informasi yang diinginkan.“
Dengan kecepatan penguasaan materi yang dapat diatur sendiri oleh pemakainya, memakai komputer mendapatkan perhatian besar karena kemampuannya untuk digunakan dalam kegiatan pembelajaran/ intruksional. Sebagai suatu sistem penyampaian, komputer dipertimbangkan karena mampu melengkapi para siswa dengan: model, drill, dan latihan, alat referensi, sistem dan lingkungan simulasi, tes, dan perhitungan yang kompleks.
Berdasarkan pernyataan diatas, komputer adalah salah satu jenis media pembelajaran yang baik untuk metode belajar mengajar terutama dalam Bahasa Inggris. Sehingga, komputer adalah media yang baik untuk mengembangkan bahasa.
2) Adventages of computers.
Beside that, computer have several advatages according Arimurti (2007), those are:
1. Computers can present materials in various ways.
2. Computers are flexible and untiring.
3. Computers can give immediate feedback.
4. Computers can calculate quickly and accurately.
5. Computers can use information from floppy disks, hard disks, CD-ROM, laser disks, etc.
6. Computers networks allow the teacher to quickly give all students certain information and to obtain information from the students quickly too.
So, we can conclude that computers is one of good media to study English. “ Students can learn better, faster, easier, more accurately, and more enjoyable with a computer. If there is a computer. If there is a computer, people do not need anything else to study” (Kitao:2001).
2.2. CALL (Computer-Assisted Learning Language)
1) Definition of CALL (Computer-Assisted Learning Language)
According to Arimurti (2007:1) “CALL (Computer-Assisted Learning Language) is any process in which learners use computer and as the result, improves his or her language”.
Further, another definition , “CALL (Computer-Assisted Learning Language) is an approach to language teaching and learning in which computer technology is used as an aid to the presentation, reinforcement and assessment of material to be learned, usually including a substantial interactive element.”
Last day, people have been know that computers is to be instruction. That is named Computer Assisted Instruction. Azwar Arsyad (1995:35) explain, “Computer Assisted Instruction yaitu suatu sistem penyampaian materi pelajaran berbasis mikroprosesor yang pelajarannya dirancang dan diprogam kedalam sistem tersebut .”
2) Phases of CALL (Computer-Assisted Learning Language)
According Arimurti (2007:1), there are phases of CALL, those are:
a. Behavioristic CALL
- Implemented in 1960’s and based on the behaviorist theories of learning.
- It could be referred to as “ drill and practice”
- In this case, the computer was as a vehicle for delivering instructional materials to the student.
b. Communicative CALL
- It was based on the communicative approach to teaching which became famous in the 1970’s and 1980’s.
- This approach felt that the drill and practice programs of the previous decade did not allow enough authentic commincation to be of much value.
c. Integrative CALL Multimedia
- Multimedia technology – exemplied today by CD-ROM-allows a variety of media text, graphics, sound, animation, and video, to be accessed on a single machine.
3) Kelebihan CALL (Computer-Assisted Learning Language)
1) CALL is good for motivating students to study English
2) Students can get different types of input using a computer.
3) Learning can be individualized using computers.
4) CALL can overcome barriers of time and place
5) Teachers can get materials from commercial companies, networks, or databases, even from foreign countries.
Based of the statement above, CALL (Computer-Assisted Learning Language) is a good ways to build or increase the students’ knowledge especially in learning foreign language.
2. Listening Skill
Kita mempunyai dua telinga dan satu mulut. Itu menandakan bahwa mendengarkan itu dua kali lebih sulit dari pada berbicara. Seseorang yang ingin mempunyai ketrampilan mendengarkan (listening skill) yang baik, maka mereka harus sering mempraktekkan dan sering berlatih. Terutama dalam pelajaran Bahasa Inggris.
Dalam pelajaran Bahasa Inggris banyak kita temui guru yang jarang sekali melatih listening skill murid-muridnya, sehingga pada waktu Ujian Akhir Nasional (UAN) atau tes listening lainnya mereka akan kesulitan. Pada akhirnya penyesalanlah yang terjadi.
Dalam Bahasa Inggris mendengarkan ada dua kata, yaitu hearing dan listening.
“ Hearing is physical ability while listening is a skill. Listening skill allow one to make sense of and understand what another person is saying. In other word listening skill allow you to understand what someone is “talking about” .”
Berdasarkan pengertian tersebut kita tahu bahwa listening lebih sulit dari pada hearing, karena hearing hanya kegiatan fisik saja. Sedangkan menurut Brown et all.(1985: 98) “ listening skill is receiving, analyzing, and interpreting oral signal that come to someonerecreating messages of the speaker.”
Seseorang yang listening skill-nya baik maka mereka akan lebih menguasi ketrampilan (skill) lainnya. Karena dari keempat ketrampilan (skill) dalam Bahasa Inggris, ketrampilan listening lah yang paling sulit. Sehingga siswa akan merasa mudah untuk ketiga ketrampilan (skill) lainnya, yaitu speaking, reading, dan writing. Seperti ungkapan berikut “ good listening skills make workers more productive.”
Berikut cara agar kita dapat menjadi “good listener”: “maintain eye contact, don’t interrupt the speaker, sit still, nod your head, lean toward the speaker, repeat instructions and ask appropriate questions when the speaker has finished.
Brown J. Donald et all., Test Technique and Procedures, (Cambridge: Newburry House Publishers, 1985), 98.
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